Volume 11 · Number 2 · Pages 407–416
Exploring the Depth of Dream Experience: The Enactive Framework and Methods for Neurophenomenological Research

Elizaveta Solomonova & Xin Wei Sha

Download the full text in
PDF (1503 kB)

> Citation > Similar > References > Add Comment


Context: Phenomenology and the enactive approach pose a unique challenge to dream research: during sleep one seems to be relatively disconnected from both world and body. Movement and perception, prerequisites for sensorimotor subjectivity, are restricted; the dreamer’s experience is turned inwards. In cognitive neurosciences, on the other hand, the generally accepted approach holds that dream formation is a direct result of neural activations in the absence of perception, and dreaming is often equated with “delusions.” Problem: Can enactivism and phenomenology account for the variety of dream experiences? What kinds of experiential and empirical approaches are required in order to probe into dreaming subjectivity? Investigating qualities of perception, sensation, and embodiment in dreams, as well as the relationship between the dream-world and waking-world requires a step away from a delusional or altered-state framework of dream formation and a step toward an enactive integrative approach. Method: In this article, we will focus on the “depth” of dream experiences, i.e., what is possible in the dream state. Our article is divided into two parts: a theoretical framework for approaching dreaming from an enactive cognition standpoint; and discussion of the role and strategies for experimentation on dreaming. Based on phenomenology and theories of enactivism, we will argue for the primacy of subjectivity and imagination in the formation of lived experience. Results: We propose that neurophenomenology of dreaming is a nascent discipline that requires rethinking the relative role of third-, first- and second-person methodologies, and that a paradigm shift is required in order to investigate dreaming as a phenomenon on a continuum of conscious phenomena as opposed to a break from or an alteration of consciousness. Implications: Dream science, as part of the larger enterprise of consciousness and subjectivity studies, can be included in the enactive framework. This implies that dream experiences are neither passively lived nor functionally disconnected from dreamers’ world and body. We propose the basis and some concrete strategies for an empirical enactive neurophenomenology of dreaming. We conclude that investigating dream experiences can illuminate qualities of subjective perception and relation to the world, and thus challenge the traditional subject-object juxtaposition. Constructivist content: This article argues for an interdisciplinary enactive cognitive science approach to dream studies.

Key words: Dreaming, enaction, first-person research, consciousness, neurophenomenology.


Solomonova E. & Sha X. W. (2016) Exploring the depth of dream experience: The enactive framework and methods for neurophenomenological research. Constructivist Foundations 11(2): 407–416. http://constructivist.info/11/2/407

Export article citation data: Plain Text · BibTex · EndNote · Reference Manager (RIS)

Similar articles

Hawes R. (2013) Art & Neurophenomenology: Putting the Experience Before the Words
Vörös S. & Riegler A. (2017) A Plea for not Watering Down the Unseemly: Reconsidering Francisco Varela’s Contribution to Science
Vörös S. & Bitbol M. (2017) Enacting Enaction: A Dialectic Between Knowing and Being
Gasparyan D. (2016) Consciousness as Self-Description in Differences
Riegler A. & Weber S. (2008) Non-dualizing from Now On?


Ahn H., Prichep L., John E. R., Baird H., Trepetin M. & Kaye H. (1980) Developmental equations reflect brain dysfunctions. Science 210: 259–262. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Barrett D. & Loeffler M. (1992) Comparison of dream content of depressed vs nondepressed dreamers. Psychological Reports 70(2): 403–406. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Barrett D. (1993) The “committee of sleep”: A study of dream incubation for problem solving. Dreaming 3(2): 115–123. http://www.asdreams.org/journal/articles/barrett3–2.htm
Belicki K. (1992) Nightmare frequency versus nightmare distress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 101(3): 592–597. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Beyer C. (2015) Edmund Husserl. In: Zalta E. N. (ed.) The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2015/entries/husserl
Bitbol M. (2012) Neurophenomenology, an ongoing practice of/in consciousness. Constructivist Foundations 7(3): 165–173. http://constructivist.info/7/3/165
Blagrove M., Henley-Einion J., Barnett A., Edwards D. & Seage C. H. (2011) A replication of the 5–7 day dream-lag effect with comparison of dreams to future events as control for baseline matching. Consciousness and Cognition 20(2): 384–391. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Block N. & Stalnaker R. (1999) Conceptual analysis, dualism, and the explanatory gap. Philosophical Review 108(1): 1–46. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bockelman P., Reinerman-Jones L. & Gallagher S. (2013) Methodological lessons in neurophenomenology. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7: 608. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bogzaran F. & Deslauriers D. (2012) Integral dreaming: A holistic approach to dreams. SUNY Press, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bugalho P. & Paiva T. (2011) Dream features in the early stages of Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neural Transmission 118(11): 1613–1619. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bulkeley K. (2009) Seeking patterns in dream content. Consciousness and Cognition 18(4): 905–916. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bulkeley K. (2014) Digital dream analysis: A revised method. Consciousness and Cognition 29C: 159–170. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Busink R. & Kuiken D. (1996) Identifying types of impactful dreams: A replication. Dreaming 6: 97–119. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Cartwright R., Agargun M. Y., Kirkby J. & Friedman J. K. (2006) Relation of dreams to waking concerns. Psychiatry Research 141(3): 261–270. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Casey E. S. (1976) Imagining. Indiana University Press, Bloomington IN. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Chalmers D. J. (1995) Facing up to the problem of consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 2(3): 200–219. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Clark A. (2014) Perceiving as predicting. In: Stokes D., Matthen M. & Briggs S. (eds.) Perception and its modalities. Oxford University Press, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Clark A. (2015) Embodied prediction. In: Metzinger T. & Windt J. M. (eds.) Open MIND: 7(T). http://open-mind.net/papers
Colombetti G. (2013) The feeling body: Affective science meets the enactive mind. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. http://cepa.info/777
Corsi M. (1983) Sleep psychophysiology. Trillas, México. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Corsi M., Blázquez N., Galarraga E., Signoret L. & Valle P. (1982) Effects of light deprivation on sleep in the rat. Physiology and Behavior 28: 437–440. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Corsi-Cabrera M., Rosales-Lagarde A., Del Río-Portilla Y., Sifuentes-Ortega R. & Alcántara-Quintero B. (2015) Effects of selective REM sleep deprivation on prefrontal gamma activity and executive functions. International Journal of Psychophysiology 96: 115–124. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Crook R. E. & Hill C. E. (2003) Working with dreams in psychotherapy: The therapists’ perspective. Dreaming 13(2): 83–93. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Damasio A. (2003) Looking for Spinoza. Harcourt, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Díaz J. L. (2015) The oneiric consciousness and the representation of dreams. Cuadernos de Psicoanálisis 1–4: 277–317. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
De Jaegher H. & Di Paolo E. (2007) Participatory sense-making. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 6(4): 485–507. http://cepa.info/2387
De Jaegher H., Di Paolo E. & Gallagher S. (2010) Can social interaction constitute social cognition? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14(10): 441–447. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
De Koninck J. M. & Koulack D. (1975) Dream content and adaptation to a stressful situation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 84(3): 250–260. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
DeCasper A. J. & Spence M. J. (1986) Prenatal maternal speech influences newborns’ perception of speech sounds. Infant Behavior and Development 9(2): 133–150. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Decety J. (1996) Do imagined and executed actions share the same neural substrate? Cognitive Brain Research 3(2): 87–93. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dement W. & Wolpert E. A. (1958) The relation of eye movements, body motility, and external stimuli to dream content. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55(6): 543–553. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dennett D. C. (1976) Are dreams experiences? The Philosophical Review 85(2): 151–171. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Depraz N. & Cosmelli D. (2013) Empathy and openness. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 33(1): 163–203. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Depraz N., Varela F. J. & Vermersch P. (eds.) (2003) On becoming aware: A pragmatics of experiencing. John Benjamin, Amsterdam. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Desbordes G. & Negi L. T. (2013) A new era for mind studies: Training investigators in both scientific and contemplative methods of inquiry. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7: 741. http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00741
Desseilles M., Dang-Vu T. T., Sterpenich V. & Schwartz S. (2011) Cognitive and emotional processes during dreaming. Consciousness and Cognition 20(4): 998–1008. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Di Paolo E. & De Jaegher H. (2012) The interactive brain hypothesis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6: 163. http://cepa.info/761
Domhoff G. W. & Fox K. C. (2015) Dreaming and the default network. Consciousness and Cognition 33: 342–353. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Domhoff G. W. & Schneider A. (1998) New rationales and methods for quantitative dream research outside the laboratory. Sleep 21: 398–404. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Domhoff G. W. & Schneider A. (2008) Similarities and differences in dream content at the cross-cultural, gender, and individual levels. Consciousness and Cognition 17(4): 1257–1265. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Domhoff G. W. (2013) Finding meaning in dreams: A quantitative approach: Springer, New York. Originally published in 1996. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dresler M., Koch S. P., Wehrle R., Spoormaker V. I., Holsboer F., Steiger A., Sämann P. G., Obrig H. & Czisch M. (2011) Dreamed movement elicits activation in the sensorimotor cortex. Current Biology 21(21): 1833–1837. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Edwards C. L., Ruby P. M., Malinowski J. E., Bennett P. D. & Blagrove M. T. (2013) Dreaming and insight. Frontiers in Psychology 4: 979. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ellis R. D. & Newton N. (2010) How the mind uses the brain (to move the body and image the universe). Open Court, Chicago. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ellis R. D. (1995) Questioning consciousness: The interplay of imagery, cognition, and emotion in the human brain. John Benjamins, Amsterdam. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ellis R. D. (2005) Curious emotions: Roots of consciousness and personality in motivated action. John Benjamins, Amsterdam. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Erlacher D. & Schredl M. (2008) Cardiovascular responses to dreamed physical exercise during REM lucid dreaming. Dreaming 18(2): 112–121. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Erlacher D., Stumbrys T. & Schredl M. (2012) Frequency of lucid dreams and lucid dream practice in German athletes. Imagination, Cognition and Personality 31(3): 237–246. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Eswaran H., Wilson J. D., Preissl H., Robinson S. E., Vrba J., Murphy P., Rose D. F. & Lowery C. L. (2002) Magnetoencephalographic recordings of visual evoked brain activity in the human fetus. The Lancet 360(9335): 779–780. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ferrarelli F., Smith R., Dentico D., Riedner B. A., Zennig C., Benca R. M., Lutz A. Davidson R. J. & Tononi G. (2013) Experienced mindfulness meditators exhibit higher parietal-occipital EEG gamma activity during NREM sleep. PloS ONE 8(8): E73417. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Fischbein S. V. (2011) The use of dreams in the clinical context: Convergencies and divergencies: An interdisciplinary proposal. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 92(2): 333–358. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Fox K. & Christoff K. (eds.) (2016) The Oxford handbook of spontaneous thought. Oxford Universtiy Press, Oxford. In: Press. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Fox K. C. R., Nijeboer S., Solomonova E., Domhoff G. W. & Christoff K. (2013) Dreaming as mind wandering: Evidence from functional neuroimaging and first-person content reports. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7: 412. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Fox K. C. R., Nijeboer S., Solomonova E., Domhoff G. W. & Christoff K. (2013) Dreaming as mind wandering: Evidence from functional neuroimaging and first-person content reports. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7: 412. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Fox K. C., Zakarauskas P., Dixon M., Ellamil M., Thompson E. & Christoff K. (2012) Meditation experience predicts introspective accuracy. PLoS ONE 7(9): E45370. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Freud S. (2010) The Interpretation of Dreams. Basic Books. German original published in 1900. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gallagher S. & González J. C. (2014) Time, altered states of consciousness, and science. Cosmology 18: 246–262. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gallagher S. & Jeannerod M. (2002) From action to interaction. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (1): 4–30. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ganis G. (2013) Visual mental imagery. In: Lacey S. & Lawson R. (eds.) Multisensory imagery. Springer, New York: 9–28. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gendlin E. T. (1981) Focusing. Revised edition. Bantam, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gendlin E. T. (1986) Let your body interpret your dreams. Chiron, Wilmette IL. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gendlin E. T. (1998) Experiencing and the creation of meaning. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gerardin E., Sirigu A., Lehéricy, S., Poline J. B., Gaymard B., Marsault C., Agid Y. & Le Bihan D. (2000) Partially overlapping neural networks for real and imagined hand movements. Cerebral cortex 10(11): 1093–1104. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gibson E. J. (1988) Exploratory behavior in the development of perceiving, acting, and the acquiring of knowledge. Annual Review of Psychology 39: 1–41. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gibson J. J. (1986) The ecological approach to visual perception. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale NJ. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Giorgi A. P. (2012) The descriptive phenomenological psychological method. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 43(1): 3–12. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gonsalves B., Reber P. J., Gitelman D. R., Parrish T. B., Mesulam M. M. & Paller K. A. (2004) Neural evidence that vivid imagining can lead to false remembering. Psychological Science 15(10): 655–660. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
González J. C. (2001) Une perspective witggensteinienne sur le problème de la conscience dans les sciences cognitives. Intellectica 1(32): 111–122. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
González J. C. (2004) El argumento de la alucinación revisitado. Acta Comportamentalia 12: 55–73. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
González J. C. (2005) La conciencia percepetiva y la conciencia alucinada. In: Escotto-Córdova A. & Grande-García I. (eds.) Enfoques sobre el estudio de la conciencia. UNAM/FES-Zaragoza. México: 325–368. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
González J. C. (2010) Du concept “hallucinogène” au concept “lucidogène.” Aller-retour. In: Baud S. & Ghasarian C. (eds.) Des plantes psychotropes. Imago, Paris: 195–232. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
González J. C. (2010) On pink elephants, floating daggers, and other philosophical myths. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9(2): 193–211. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
González J. C. (2013) Naturalizando el sensus communis. Episteme 33(1): 59–85. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
González J. C. (2014) Buscando justicia para “ver.” In: King P., González J. C. & González de Luna E. (eds.) Ciencias cognitivas y filosofía: Entre la cooperación y la integración. UAQ/MAPorrúa, Mexico: 147–176. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Good J. M. (2007) The affordances for social psychology of the ecological approach to social knowing. Theory & Psychology 17(2): 265–295. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gottesmann C. (2006) The dreaming sleep stage: A new neurobiological model of schizophrenia? Neuroscience 140(4): 1105–1115. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Granier-Deferre C., Bassereau S., Ribeiro A., Jacquet A. Y. & DeCasper A. J. (2011) A melodic contour repeatedly experienced by human near-term fetuses elicits a profound cardiac reaction one month after birth. PLoS One 6(2): E17304. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Grush R. (2004) The emulation theory of representation: Motor control, imagery, and perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18: 53–93. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hall C. S. & Van de Castle R. L. (1966) The content analysis of dreams. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Halpern A. R., Zatorre R. J., Bouffard M. & Johnson J. A. (2004) Behavioral and neural correlates of perceived and imagined musical timbre. Neuropsychologia 42(9): 1281–1292. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hanze M. & Hesse F. (1993) Emotional influences on semantic priming. Cognition and Emotion 7: 195–205. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Harmony T., Marosi E., Díaz de León M. A., Becker J. & Fernández T. (1990) Effect of sex, psychosocial disvantages and biological risk factors on EEG maturation. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology 75: 482–491. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hartmann E. & Kunzendorf R. G. (2006) The Central image (CI) in recent dreams, dreams that stand out, and earliest dreams: Relationship to boundaries. Imagination, Cognition and Personality 25(4): 383–392. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hartmann E. (1968) The day residue: Time distribution of waking events. Psychophysiology 5(2): 222. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hartmann E. (2008) The central image makes “big” dreams big: The central image as the emotional heart of the dream. Dreaming 18(1): 44–57. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hartmann E. (2010) The nature and functions of dreaming. Oxford University Press, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hartmann E. (2010) The underlying emotion and the dream relating dream imagery to the dreamer’s underlying emotion can help elucidate the nature of dreaming. International Review of Neurobiology 92: 197–214. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hartmann E. (2013) Thymophor in dreams, poetry, art and memory: Emotion translated into imagery as a basic element of human creativity. Imagination, Cognition and Personality 33(1): 165–191. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hervey de Saint-Denis L. (1867) Les rêves et les moyens de les diriger. Amyot, Paris. https://archive.org/details/lesrvesetlesmoye00herv.
Hobson A. (2004) A model for madness? Nature 430: 21. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hobson J. A. & McCarley R. W. (1977) The brain as a dream state generator: An activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process. American Journal of Psychiatry 134(12): 1335–1348. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hobson J. A. (1988) The dreaming brain. Basic Books, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hobson J. A., Pace-Schott E. F. & Stickgold R. (2000) Dreaming and the brain: Toward a cognitive neuroscience of conscious states. Behavioral and Brain Science 23(6): 793–842; discussion 904–1121. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hoelscher T. J., Klinger E. & Barta S. G. (1981) Incorporation of concern-and nonconcern-related verbal stimuli into dream content. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 90(1): 88–91. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hurley S. (1998) Consciousness in action. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Husserl E. (1982) Ideas pertaining to a pure phenomenology and to a phenomenological philosophy: First book, general introduction to a pure phenomenology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston MA. German original published in 1913. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hut P. & Shepard R. N. (1996) Turning the “hard problem” upside down & sideways. Journal of Consciousness Studies 3(4): 313–329. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Jeannerod M. (1994) The representing brain: Neural correlates of motor intention and imagery. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17: 187–244. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Jeannerod M. (1997) The cognitive neuroscience of action. Blackwell, Oxford. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Josipovic Z. (2010) Duality and nonduality in meditation research. Consciousness and Cognition 19(4): 1119–1121; discussion 1122–1113. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Kahn D., Stickgold R., Pace‐Schott E. & Hobson J. (2000) Dreaming and waking consciousness: A character recognition study. Journal of Sleep Research 9(4): 317–325. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Kühn S., Fernyhough C., Alderson-Day B. & Hurlburt R. T. (2014) Inner experience in the scanner: Can high fidelity apprehensions of inner experience be integrated with fMRI? Frontiers in psychology 5: 1–8. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Khazaie H., Tahmasian M., Younesi G., D, C. S., Rezaei M., Rezaie L., Mohamadi M. & Ghanbari A. (2012) Evaluation of dream content among patients with schizophrenia, their siblings, patients with psychiatric diagnoses other than schizophrenia, and healthy control. Iran Journal of Psychiatry 7(1): 26–30. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Knox S., Hill C. E., Hess S. A. & Crook-Lyon R. E. (2008) Case studies of the attainment of insight in dream sessions: Replication and extension. Psychotherapy Research, 18(2): 200–215. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
LaBerge S. & Rheingold H. (1991) Exploring the world of lucid dreaming. Ballantine Books, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
LaBerge S. (1990) Lucid dreaming: Psychophysiological studies of consciousness during REM sleep. In: Bootzin R. R., Kihlstrom J. F. & Schacter D. L. (eds.) Sleep and cognition. American Psychological Association, Washington DC: 109–126. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
LaBerge S. (2009) Lucid dreaming: A concise guide to awakening in your dreams and in your life. Sounds True, Louisville CO. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
LaBerge S., Nagel L., Dement W. & Zarcone V. (1981) Lucid dreaming verified by volitional communication during REM sleep. Perceptual & Motor Skills 52: 727–732. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lara-Carrasco J., Simard V., Saint-Onge K., Lamoureux-Tremblay V. & Nielsen T. A. (2013) Maternal representations in the dreams of pregnant women. Frontiers in Psychology 4: 551. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lethin A. (2002) How do we embody intentionality? Journal of Consciousness Studies 9(8): 36–44. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Levin R. & Fireman G. (2002) Nightmare prevalence, nightmare distress, and self-reported psychological disturbance. Sleep 25(2): 205–212. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Levin R. & Nielsen T. A. (2007) Disturbed dreaming, posttraumatic stress disorder, and affect distress: A review and neurocognitive model. Psychological Bulletin 133(3): 482–528. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Levitan L. & LaBerge S. (1993) Testing the limits of dream control: The light and mirror experiment. Nightlight 5(2) http://www.lucidity.com/NL52.LightandMirror.html
Lewis J. E. (2008) Dream reports of animal rights activists. Dreaming 18(3): 181–200. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Llinás R. & Ribary U. (1994) Perception as an oneiric-like state modulated by the senses. In: Koch C. & Davis J. K. (eds.) Large-scale neuronal theories of the brain. The MIT Press, Cambridge MA: 111–124. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Llinás, R. (1989) “Mindness” as a functional state of the brain. In: Blakemore C. & Greenfield S. (eds.) Mindwaves. Basil Blackwell. Oxford: 339–358. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lloyd D. (2002) Functional MRI and the study of human consciousness. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 14(6): 818–831. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Logothetis N. K., Pauls J., Augath M., Trinath T. & Oeltermann A. (2001) Neurophysiological investigation of the basis of the fMRI signal. Nature 412 (6843): 150–157. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lutz A. & Thompson E. (2003) Neurophenomenology: Integrating subjective experience and brain dynamics in the neuroscience of consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10(9–10): 31–52. http://cepa.info/2363
Lutz A. (2007) Neurophenomenology and the study of self-consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 16(3): 765–767. http://cepa.info/2371
Lutz A., Jha A. P., Dunne J. D. & Saron C. D. (2015) Investigating the phenomenological matrix of mindfulness-related practices from a neurocognitive perspective. American Psychologist 70(7): 632–658. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lutz A., Lachaux J.-P., Martinerie J. & Varela F. J. (2002) Guiding the study of brain dynamics by using first-person data: Synchrony patterns correlate with ongoing conscious states during a simple visual task. PNAS 99(3): 1586–1591. http://cepa.info/2092
Maclaren K. (2014) Touching matters: Embodiment if intimacy. Emotion, Space and Society 13: 95–102. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Madioni F. (2005) La subjectivité à l’épreuve du rêve. Une étude phénoménologique de l’intentionnalité et de l’affect. L’Evolution Psychiatrique 70(2): 357–368. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Malcolm N. (1962) Dreaming. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Malinowski J. E. & Horton C. L. (2014) Memory sources of dreams: The incorporation of autobiographical rather than episodic experiences. Journal of sleep research 23(4): 441–447. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Matousek M. & Petersen I. (1973) Automatic evaluation of the EEG background activity by means of age dependent EEG quotients. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology 35: 603–612. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. (2008) The biological foundations of virtual realities and their implications for human existence. Constructivist Foundations 3(2): 109–114. http://constructivist.info/3/2/109
McCall C. & McCall W. V. (2012) Objective vs. subjective measurements of sleep in depressed insomniacs: First night effect or reverse first night effect? Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 8(1): 59–65. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
McGinn C. (2004) Mindsight: Image, dream, meaning. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
McNamara P., Johnson P., McLaren D., Harris E., Beauharnais C. & Auerbach S. (2010) REM and NREM sleep mentation. International Review of Neurobiology 92: 69–86. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Mead G. H. (1934) Mind, self, and society: From the standpoint of a social behaviorist. Works of George Herbert Mead 1. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Merleau-Ponty M. (1962) Phenomenology of perception. Translated by Colin Smith. Humanities Press, New York. French original published in 1941. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Merleau-Ponty M. (1963) The structure of behavior. Translated by A. Fischer. Beacon, Boston. French original published in 1942. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Merleau-Ponty M. (2010) Institution and passivity: Course notes from the Collège de France (1954–1955): Northwestern University Press, Evanston IL. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Merleau-Ponty M. (2012) Phenomenology of perception. Translated by D. Landes. Routledge, New York. French original published in 1945. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Merritt J. M., Stickgold R., Pace-Schott E., Williams J. & Hobson J. A. (1994) Emotion profiles in the dreams of men and women. Consciousness and Cognition 3(1): 46–60. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Miller G. A. (2003) The cognitive revolution: A historical perspective. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7(3): 141–144. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Morgan P. T., Pace-Schott E. F., Sahul Z. H., Coric V., Stickgold R. & Malison R. T. (2006) Sleep, sleep-dependent procedural learning and vigilance in chronic cocaine users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 82(3): 238–249. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Morris D. (2010) Empirical and phenomenological studies of embodied cognition. In: Gallagher S. & Schmicking D. (eds.) Handbook of phenomenology and cognitive science. Springer, New York: 235–252. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Neisser U. (1976) Cognition and reality. Freeman, San Francisco. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Newton N. (1996) Foundations of understanding. John Benjamins, Amsterdam. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Niedermeyer E. & Lopes da Silva F. (2005) Electroencephalography: Basic principles, clinical applications and related fields. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nielsen T. & Levin R. (2007) Nightmares: A new neurocognitive model. Sleep medicine reviews 11(4): 295–310. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nielsen T. A. & Powell R. A. (1989) The “dream-lag” effect: A 6-day temporal delay in dream content incorporation. Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa 14(4): 561–565. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nielsen T. A. & Powell R. A. (1992) The day-residue and dream-lag effects: A literature review and limited replication of two temporal effects in dream formation. Dreaming 2(2): 67–77. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nielsen T. A. & Powell R. A. (2015) Dreams of the rarebit fiend: Food and diet as instigators of bizarre and disturbing dreams. Frontiers in Psychology 6: 47. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nielsen T. A. (1993) Changes in the kinesthetic content of dreams following somatosensory stimulation of leg muscles during REM sleep. Dreaming 3(2): 99–113. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nielsen T. A. (2000) A review of mentation in REM and NREM sleep: “Covert” REM sleep as a possible reconciliation of two opposing models. Behavioral and Brain Science 23(6): 851–866; discussion 904–1121. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nielsen T. A. (2011) Dream analysis and classification: The reality simulation perspective. In: Kryger M., Roth T. & Dement W. C. (eds.) Principles and practice of sleep medicine. Elsevier, New York: 595–603. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nielsen T. A. (2012) Variations in dream recall frequency and dream theme diversity by age and sex. Frontiers in Neurology 3: 106. http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneur.2012.00106
Nielsen T. A., Kuiken D., Alain G., Stenstrom P. & Powell R. A. (2004) Immediate and delayed incorporations of events into dreams: Further replication and implications for dream function. Journal of Sleep Research 13(4): 327–336. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nielsen T. A., Paquette T., Solomonova E., Lara-Carrasco J., Popova A. & Levrier K. (2010) REM sleep characteristics of nightmare sufferers before and after REM sleep deprivation. Sleep Medicine 11(2): 172–179. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nielsen T. A., Zadra A. L., Simard V., Saucier S., Stenstrom P., Smith C. & Kuiken D. (2003) the typical dreams of Canadian university students. Dreaming 13(4): 211–235. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nielsen T., Paquette T., Solomonova E., Lara-Carrasco J., Colombo R. & Lanfranchi P. (2010) Changes in cardiac variability after REM sleep deprivation in recurrent nightmares. Sleep 33(1): 113–122. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nielsen T., Stenstrom P., Takeuchi T., Saucier S., Lara-Carrasco J., Solomonova E. & Martel E. (2005) Partial REM-sleep deprivation increases the dream-like quality of mentation from REM sleep and sleep onset. Sleep 28(9): 1083–1089. http://www.journalsleep.org/Articles/280911.pdf
Nielsen T., Svob C. & Kuiken D. (2009) Dream-enacting behaviors in a normal population. Sleep 32(12): 1629–1636. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nisbett R. E. & Wilson T. D. (1977) Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review 84(3): 231–259. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Noë A. (1999) Thought and experience. American Philosophical Quarterly 36: 257–265. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Noë A. (2004) Action in perception. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Noë A. (2006) Experience of the world in time. Analysis 66(1): 26–32. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Noë A. (2009) Out of our heads: Why you are not your brain, and other lessons from the biology of consciousness. Macmillan, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Norbu N. (2002) Dream yoga and the practice of natural light. Revised edition. Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca NY. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Noreika V., Valli K., Lahtela H. & Revonsuo A. (2009) Early-night serial awakenings as a new paradigm for studies on NREM dreaming. International Journal of Psychophysiology 74(1): 14–18. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Oudiette D., Leu S., Pottier M., Buzare M. A., Brion A. & Arnulf I. (2009) Dreamlike mentations during sleepwalking and sleep terrors in adults. Sleep 32(12): 1621–1627. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Overgaard M., Gallagher S. & Ramsøy, T. Z. (2008) An integration of first-person methodologies in cognitive science. Journal of Consciousness Studies 15(5): 100–120. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Pace-Schott E. F., Kaji J., Stickgold R. & Hobson A. (1994) Nightcap measurement of sleep quality in self-described good and poor sleepers. Sleep 17: 688–692. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Pacherie E. (1999) Leibhaftigkeit and representational theories of perception. In: Roy J.-M., Petitot J., Pachoud B. & Varela F. J. (eds.) Naturalizing phenomenology. Stanford University Press, Stanford CA: 148–160. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Parker J. & Alford C. (2010) How to use Q-methodology in dream research: Assumptions, procedures and benefits. Dreaming 20(3): 169–183. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Pessoa L. (2013) The cognitive-emotional brain: From interactions to integration. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Petitmengin C. & Bitbol M. (2009) Listening from within. Journal of Consciousness Studies 16(10–12): 10–12. http://cepa.info/2373
Petitmengin C. (2006) Describing one’s subjective experience in the second person: An interview method for the science of consciousness. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 5(3–4): 229–269. http://cepa.info/2376
Petitmengin C. (2007) Towards the source of thoughts. The gestural and transmodal dimension of lived experience. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14(3): 54–82. http://cepa.info/2372
Petitmengin-Peugeot C. (1999) The intuitive experience. Journal of Consciousness Studies 6(2–3): 43–77. http://cepa.info/2411
Putnam H. (1986) Dreaming and “depth grammar.” In: Putnam H., Philosophical papers. Volume 2: Mind, language, and reality. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 304–324. Originally published in 1962. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Raymond I., Nielsen T. A., Lavigne G. & Choiniere M. (2002) Incorporation of pain in dreams of hospitalized burn victims. Sleep 25(7): 765–770. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rechtschaffen A. & Buchignani C. (1992) The visual appearance of dreams. In: Antrobus J. & Bertini M. (eds.) The neuropsychology of sleep and dreaming. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale: 143–155. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rechtschaffen A. (1978) The single-mindedness and isolation of dreams. Sleep 1: 97–109. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Reissland N., Francis B., Aydin E., Mason J. & Schaal B. (2014) The development of anticipation in the fetus: A longitudinal account of human fetal mouth movements in reaction to and anticipation of touch. Developmental psychobiology 56(5): 955–963. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Revonsuo A. (2015) Hard to see the problem? Journal of Consciousness Studies 22(3–4): 52–67. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Revonsuo A., Tuominen J. & Valli K. (2015) The avatars in the machine. In: Metzinger T. & Windt J. M. (eds.) Open MIND: 32(T). http://open-mind.net/papers
Roesch E. B., Nasuto S. J. & Bishop J. M. (2012) Emotion and anticipation in an enactive framework for cognition (response to Andy Clark). Frontiers in Psychology 3: 398. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00398
Roffwarg H. P., Muzio J. N. & Dement W. C. (1966) Ontogenetic development of the human sleep-dream cycle. Science 152: 604–619. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rosales-Lagarde A., Armony J., del Río-Portilla Y., Trejo-Martínez D., Conde R. & Corsi-Cabrera M. (2012) Enhanced emotional reactivity after selective REM sleep deprivation in humans: An fMRI study. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 18: 25. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rosales-Lagarde A., González J. C. & Díaz J. L. (in press) The measurements of dreams. In: Rosales-Lagarde A., Díaz J. L., Müller M. F. & Jiménez-Anguiano A. (eds.) The nature of dreams. Brain, mind and culture. Herder, México. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rosenzweig M. (1966) Environmental complexity, cerebral change and behavior. American psychology 21: 321–322. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ryle G. (1984) The concept of mind. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Originally published in 1949. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Sartre J.-P. (2004) The imaginary. Routledge. New York. French original published in 1940. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Sauvageau A., Nielsen T. A. & Montplaisir J. (1998) Effects of somatosensory stimulation on dream content in gymnasts and control participants: Evidence of vestibulomotor adaptation in REM sleep. Dreaming 8(2): 125–134. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Scarone S., Manzone M. L., Gambini O., Kantzas I., Limosani A. D. & Hobson J. A. (2008) The dream as a model for psychosis: An experimental approach using bizarreness as a cognitive marker. Schizophrenia Bulletin 34: 515–522. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schredl M. & Hofmann F. (2003) Continuity between waking activities and dream activities. Consciousness and Cognition 12(2): 298–308. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schredl M. (2008) Laboratory references in dreams: Methodological problem and/or evidence for the continuity hypothesis of dreaming? International Journal of Dream Research 1(1): 3–6. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schredl M. (2010) Characteristics and contents of dreams. International Review of Neurobiology 92: 135–154. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schredl M., Atanasova D., Hörmann K., Maurer J. T., Hummel T. & Stuck B. A. (2009) Information processing during sleep: The effect of olfactory stimuli on dream content and dream emotions. Journal of sleep research 18(3): 285–290. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schweitzer R. (1996) A phenomenological study of dream interpretation among the Xhosa-speaking people in rural South Africa. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 27(1): 72–96. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Shapin S. & Schaffer S. (2011) Leviathan and the air-pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the experimental life. Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Siclari F., LaRocque J. J., Postle B. R. & Tononi G. (2013) Assessing sleep consciousness within subjects using a serial awakening paradigm. Frontiers in psychology 4: 542. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Slagter H. A., Davidson R. J. & Lutz A. (2011) Mental training as a tool in the neuroscientific study of brain and cognitive plasticity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5: 17. http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnhum.2011.00017
Solomonova E., Fox K. C. R. & Nielsen T. A. (2014) Methodological considerations for the neurophenomenology of dreaming: Commentary on Windt’s “Reporting dream experience.” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8: 317. http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00317
Solomonova E., Nielsen T., Stenstrom P., Simard V., Frantova E. & Donderi D. (2008) Sensed presence as a correlate of sleep paralysis distress, social anxiety and waking state social imagery. Consciousness and cognition 17(1): 49–63. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Solomonova E., Stenstrom P., Paquette T. & Nielsen T. A. (2015) Different temporal patterns of memory incorporations into dreams for laboratory and virtual reality experiences: Relation to dreamed locus of control. International Journal of Dream Research 8(1): 10–26. http://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/IJoDR/article/view/16611/14122
Stenstrom P., Fox K., Solomonova E. & Nielsen T. A. (2012) Mentation during sleep onset theta bursts in a trained participant: A role for NREM stage 1 sleep in memory processing? International Journal of Dream Research 5(1): 37–46. http://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/IJoDR/article/view/9135
Stewart J. R., Gapenne O. & Di Paolo E. A. (2010) Enaction: Toward a new paradigm for cognitive science. Cambridge: MIT Press MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Stickgold R. & Walker M. (2009) Neuroscience of sleep. Academic Press, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Strachey J. (1953) The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud. Volume IV (1900): The interpretation of dreams. The Hogart Press, London. Originally published as: Freud S. (1900) Die Traumdeutung. Deuticke, Leipzig. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Stranahan S. (2011) The use of dreams in spiritual care. Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy 17(1–2): 87–94. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Tanaka H., Hayashi M. & Hori T. (1997) Topographical characteristics and principal component structure of the hypnagogic EEG. Sleep 20(7): 523–534. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Thompson E. & Batchelor S. (2014) Waking, dreaming, being: Self and consciousness in neuroscience, meditation, and philosophy. Columbia University Press, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Thompson E. & Stapleton M. (2009) Making sense of sense-making: Reflections on enactive and extended mind theories. Topoi 28(1): 23–30. http://cepa.info/2290
Thompson E. & Varela F. J. (2001) Radical embodiment: Neural dynamics and consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5(10): 418–425. http://cepa.info/2085
Thompson E. (2005) Sensorimotor subjectivity and the enactive approach to experience. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 4(4): 407–427. http://cepa.info/2358
Thompson E. (2006) Neurophenomenology and contemplative experience. In: Clayton P. (ed.) The Oxford handbook of science and religion. Oxford University Press, New York: 226–235. http://cepa.info/2356
Thompson E. (2007) Mind in life: Biology, phenomenology, and the sciences of mind. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Thompson E. (2014) Waking, dreaming, being: Self and consciousness in neuroscience, meditation, and philosophy. Columbia University Press, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Thompson E. (2015) Dreamless sleep, the embodied mind, and consciousness: The Relevance of a classical Indian debate to cognitive science. In: Metzinger T. & Windt J. M. (eds.) Open MIND: 37(T). http://cepa.info/2332
Thompson E. (2015) Steps toward a neurophenomenology of conscious sleep. A Reply to Jennifer M. Windt. In: Metzinger T. & Windt J. M. (eds.) Open MIND: 37(R). http://open-mind.net/papers
Thompson E. (ed.) (2001) Between Ourselves: Second-person issues in the study of consciousness. Imprint Academic, Exeter. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Thompson E., Lutz A. & Cosmelli D. (2005) Neurophenomenology: An introduction for neurophilosophers. In: Brook A. & Akins K. (eds.) Cognition and the brain: The philosophy and neuroscience movement. Cambridge University Press, New York: 40–97. http://cepa.info/2374
Travis F. & Shear J. (2010) Focused attention, open monitoring and automatic self-transcending: Categories to organize meditations from Vedic, Buddhist and Chinese traditions. Consciousness and Cognition 19(4): 1110–1118. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Varela F. J. & Depraz N. (2003) Imagining: Embodiment, phenomenology, transformation. In: Wallace B. A. (ed.) Buddhism & science: Breaking new ground. Columbia University Press, New York: 195–230. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Varela F. J. & Shear J. (eds.) (1999) The view from within: First person approaches to the study of consciousness. Imprint Academic, Exeter. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Varela F. J. (1996) Neurophenomenology: A methodological remedy for the hard problem. Journal of Consciousness Studies 3(4): 330–349. http://cepa.info/1893
Varela F. J., Thompson E. & Rosch E. (1991) The embodied mind: Cognitive science and human experience. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Voss U. & Hobson A. (2015) What is the state-of-the-art on lucid dreaming? In: Metzinger T. & Windt J. (eds.) Open MIND: 38(T). http://open-mind.net/papers
Voss U., Schermelleh-Engel K., Windt J., Frenzel C. & Hobson A. (2013) Measuring consciousness in dreams: The lucidity and consciousness in dreams scale. Consciousness and Cognition 22(1): 8–21. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Voss U., Tuin I., Schermelleh-Engel K. & Hobson J. A. (2011) Waking and dreaming: Related but structurally independent. Dream reports of congenitally paraplegic and deaf-mute persons. Consciousness and Cognition 20: 673–687. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Wallace B. A. & Hodel B. (2012) Dreaming yourself awake lucid dreaming and Tibetan dream yoga for insight and transformation. Shambhala, Boston MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Wallace B. A. (2012) Dreaming yourself awake: Lucid dreaming and Tibetan dream yoga for insight. Shambhala, Boston. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Wamsley E. J., Perry K., Djonlagic I., Reaven L. B. & Stickgold R. (2010) Cognitive replay of visuomotor learning at sleep onset: Temporal dynamics and relationship to task performance. Sleep 33(1): 59–68. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Waterman D. (1991) Aging and memory for dreams. Perceptual and Motor Skills 73(2): 355–365. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Windt J. M. (2013) Reporting dream experience: Why (not) to be skeptical about dream reports. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7: 708. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Windt J. M. (2015) Dreaming: A conceptual framework for philosophy of mind and empirical research. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Windt J. M. (2015) Dreams and dreaming. In: Zalta E. N. (ed.) Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/dreams-dreaming/
Windt J. M. (2015) Just in time: Dreamless sleep experience as pure subjective temporality. A commentary on Evan Thompson. In: Metzinger T. & Windt J. (eds.) Open MIND: 37(C). http://open-mind.net/papers
Zadra A. & Robert G. (2012) Dream recall frequency: Impact of prospective measures and motivational factors. Consciousness and Cognition 21(4): 1695–1702. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Zahavi D. (2014) Self and other: Exploring subjectivity, empathy, and shame. Oxford University Press, Oxford UK. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Zahavi D. (2015) You, me, and we: The sharing of emotional experiences. Journal of Consciousness Studies 22(1–2): 84–101. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Zborowski M. J. & McNamara P. (1998) Attachment hypothesis of REM sleep: Toward an integration of psychoanalysis, neuroscience, and evolutionary psychology and the implications for psychopathology research. Psychoanalytic Psychology 15(1): 115–140. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar

Comments: 0

To stay informed about comments to this publication and post comments yourself, please log in first.