Volume 11 · Number 3 · Pages 475–478
Second-Order Cybernetics Needs a Unifying Methodology

Thomas R. Flanagan

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Abstract

Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: Theory without a strong methodology is stranded in philosophy. Principles devolved from theory can be applied to situations in the arena of practice in many ways; however, a continually improving science must refine its theories with feedback from data drawn from the use of continually improving sets of codified methodologies. Second-order cybernetics is contingent upon sense-making within sapient systems. A perspective on cognitive science points toward the requirements for an enabling sense-making methodology for second-order cybernetic science.

Citation

Flanagan T. R. (2016) Second-order cybernetics needs a unifying methodology. Constructivist Foundations 11(3): 475–478. http://constructivist.info/11/3/475

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