Volume 12 · Number 1 · Pages 30–38
Constructivism as a Key Towards Further Understanding of Communication, Culture and Society

Raivo Palmaru

Download the full text in
PDF (1053 kB)

> Citation > Similar > References > Add Comment

Abstract

Context: The interest of communication scholars in (radical) constructivism is fuelled by the need to radically rethink the theoretical assumptions that have governed most media and communication research for the past three or four decades. Problem: On at least two points, constructivism poses difficulties that need to be overcome by scholars of communication. These are the attitudes of many radical constructivists towards “reality” and the constructivist position with regard to “society.” The article seeks to clarify the constructivist position with regard to social interaction and society by determining how successful communication among individuals is possible, despite their cognitive autonomy. Method: In order to contribute to a discussion about the current situation in communication and media studies, the article takes up the author’s argument that communication cannot be understood unless models describing it are centred on the individual. Based on this conceptualisation, considerations about the ontological assumptions of constructivism and the constructivist position with regard to social interaction are revisited. Results: It is argued that (a) cognition is not pure self-reference; (b) society cannot be considered simply as an individual construct; self-organisation also occurs at the supra-individual level, where shared knowledge and socio-cultural meanings emerge in the operatively closed motion of the successive communicative elements. Implications: Clarifying the constructivist position with regard to society can contribute to innovative theory building and research in communication science, and in the social sciences more broadly.

Key words: Communication, sense, meaning, self-organisation, adaptation.

Citation

Palmaru R. (2016) Constructivism as a key towards further understanding of communication, culture and society. Constructivist Foundations 12(1): 30–38. http://constructivist.info/12/1/030

Export article citation data: Plain Text · BibTex · EndNote · Reference Manager (RIS)

Similar articles

Palmaru R. (2012) Making Sense and Meaning: On the Role of Communication and Culture in the Reproduction of Social Systems
Staude M. (2008) Meaning and Description in Non-dualism: A Formalization and Extension
Hejl P. M. (2011) The Individual in Radical Constructivism. Some Critical Remarks from an Evolutionary Perspective
Bettoni M. C. (2007) The Yerkish Language: From Operational Methodology to Chimpanzee Communication
Schmidt S. J. (2010) Self-Organisation and Learning Culture

References

Alexander J. C., Giesen B., Münch R. & Smelser N. J. (eds.) (1987) The micro-macro link. University of California Press, Berkeley CA.. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Antaki C. (2006) Producing a “cognition.” Discourse Studies 8(1): 9–15. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ariès P. (1965) Centuries of childhood: A social history of family life. McGraw-Hill, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bartesaghi M. & Bowen-Perlmutter S. (2009) The acquisition of memory by interview questioning: Holocaust re-membering as category bound activity. Discourse Studies 11(6): 223–244. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Butz M. V. (2008) Intentions and mirror neurons: From the individual to overall social reality. Constructivist Foundations 3(2): 87–89 http://constructivist.info/3/2/087
Cadenas H. & Arnold-Cathalifaud M. (2015) On the criticisms against the autopoiesis of social systems. Constructivist Foundations 10(2): 196–198 http://constructivist.info/10/2/196
Cadenas H. & Arnold-Cathalifaud M. (2015) The autopoiesis of social systems and its criticisms. Constructivist Foundations 10(2): 169–176 http://constructivist.info/10/2/169
Foerster H. von (1979) Cybernetics of cybernetics. In: Krippendorff K. (ed.). Communication and control in society. Gordon and Breach, New York: 5–8 http://cepa.info/1707
Foerster H. von (1981) Observing systems. Intersystems Publications, Seaside CA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Foerster H. von (2003) Understanding understanding: Essays on cybernetics and cognition. Springer, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Foucault M. (1988) The concern for truth. In: Kritzman L. (ed.) Michel Foucault: Politics, philosophy, culture: Interviews and other writings: 1977–1984. Routledge, New York: 263–265. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Franchi S., Güzeldere G. & Minch E. (1995) Interview with Heinz von Foerster. Stanford Humanities Review 4(2): 288–307. http: //web.stanford.edu/group/SHR/4–2/text/interviewvonf.html. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Frege G. (2001) On sense and reference. In: Martinich A. P. & Sosa D. (eds.) Analytic philosophy: An anthology. Blackwell, Oxford: 7–18. German original published in 1892. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Froese T. (2010) From cybernetics to second-order cybernetics: A comparative analysis of their central ideas. Constructivist Foundations 5(2): 75–85 http://constructivist.info/5/2/075
Fuchs C. (2008) Sociology, dynamic critical realism, and radical constructivism. Constructivist Foundations 3(2): 97–99 http://constructivist.info/3/2/097
Garfinkel H. (1967) Studies in ethnomethodology. Prentice-Hall, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gergen K. J. (1999) An invitation to social construction. Sage, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Giddens A. (1976) New rules of sociological method. Hutchinson, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Giddens A. (1984) The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structuration. Polity Press, Cambridge. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Giddens A. (1990) The consequences of modernity. Stanford University Press, Redwood City CA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Glasersfeld E. von (1981) The concepts of adaptation and viability in a constructivist theory of knowledge. In: Sigel I. E., Brodzinsky D. M. & Golinkoff R. M. (eds.) New directions in Piagetian theory and practice. Erlbaum, Hillsdale NJ.: 87–95 http://cepa.info/1357
Glasersfeld E. von (1984) An introduction to radical constructivism. In: Watzlawick P. (ed.),The invented reality: How do we know what we believe we know? Norton, New York: 17–40 http://cepa.info/1279
Glasersfeld E. von (1990) An exposition of constructivism: Why some like it radical. In: Davis R. B., Maher C. A. & Noddings N. (eds.) Constructivist views on the teaching and learning of mathematics. NCTM, Reston VA: 19–29 http://cepa.info/1415
Glasersfeld E. von (1991) Knowing without metaphysics: Aspects of the radical constructivist position. In: Steier F. (ed.),Research and reflexivity. SAGE, London: 12–29 http://cepa.info/1420
Glasersfeld E. von (1995) Radical constructivism: A way of knowing and learning. Falmer Press, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Glasersfeld E. von (1998) Die radikal-konstruktivistische Wissenstheorie [The radical-constructivist theory of knowledge ]. Ethik und Sozialwissenschaften 9(4): 503–596 http://cepa.info/1500
Glasersfeld E. von (2008) Who conceives of society? Constructivist Foundations 3(2): 59–64 http://constructivist.info/3/2/059
Gruber H. E. & Voneche J. J. (eds.) (1977) The essential Piaget. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Habermas J. (1984) The theory of communicative action. Volume 1: Reason and rationalization of society. Beacon Press, Boston. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Habermas J. (1987) The theory of communicative action. Volume 2: Lifeworld and system: A critique of functionalist reason. Translated by T. McCarthy. Beacon Press, Boston. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Harnad S. & Dror I. (2006) Distributed cognition: Cognizing, autonomy and the Turing Test. Pragmatics & Cognition 14(2): 209–213. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Havelange V. (1991) Structures sociales et action cognitive: De la complexité en sociologie. In: Fogelman Soulie F., Havelange V. & Milgram M. (eds.) Les théories de la complexité. Autour de l’œuvre d’Henri Atlan. Editions du Seuil, Paris: 368–393. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Havelange V. (1994) Sciences cognitives et tradition sociologique. Revue Internationale de Systémique 8(1): 79–89. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Havelange V. (1995) Article critique: Jean-Pierre Dupuy, Aux origines des sciences cognitives, Paris, La Découverte, 1994. Intellectica 20: 247–261. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Havelange V. (1998) Le social en débat: Cognition ou interprétation sciences sociales et cognition. Intellectica 26–27: 9–55. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Havelange V. (2001) Action cognitive et formation du lien social: Vers une réévaluation de la technique. In: Paugam-Moisy H., Nyckees V. & Caron-Pargue J. (eds.) La cognition entre individu et société. Modèles et méthodes. Hermès Science, Paris: 13–45. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Havelange V. (2001) Society and human action: Technology revisited. In: Earnshaw R., Guedj R., Van Dam A. & Vince J. (eds.) Frontiers of human-centred computing, online communities and virtual environments. Springer, London: 394–412. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Havelange V. (2010) The ontological constitution of cognition and the epistemological constitution of cognitive science: Phenomenology, enaction and technology. In: Stewart J., Gapenne O. & Di Paolo E. (eds.) Enaction: Toward a new paradigm for cognitive science. MIT Press, Cambridge MA: 335–359 http://cepa.info/2466
Heidegger M. (1978) Letter on humanism. In: Krell D. F. (ed.) Basic writings (Martin Heidegger). Routledge, London: 213–265. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Heilbroner R. (1991) Reflections: Economic predictions. The New Yorker 8 July 1991: 70–77. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hutchins E. (1995) Cognition in the wild. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Kaplan D. (1989) Demonstratives. In: Almog J., Perry J. & Wettstein H. (eds.) Themes from Kaplan. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 481–563. Originally published in 1977. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Kravchenko A. V. (2003) Sign, meaning, knowledge: An essay in the cognitive philosophy of language. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Kravchenko A. V. (2007) Whence the autonomy? Pragmatics & Cognition 15(3): 587–597. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Kravchenko A. V. (2011) How Humberto Maturana’s biology of cognition can revive the language sciences. Constructivist Foundations 6(3): 352–362 http://constructivist.info/6/3/352
Kravchenko A. V. (2014) Human autopoiesis? Constructivist Foundations 9(2): 177–179 http://constructivist.info/9/2/177
Kravchenko A. V. (2016) Language as human ecology: A new agenda for linguistic education. New Ideas in Psychology 42: 14–20. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Kravchenko A. V. (2016) Two views on language ecology and ecolinguistics. Language Sciences 54: 102–113. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Kravchenko A. V. (2016) Эпистемологическая ловушка языка [The epistemological trap of language]. Tomsk State University Journal of Philology 3(41): 14–26. http://journals.tsu.ru/philology/&journal_page=archive&id=1393&article_id=28670
Krippendorff K. (2008) Towards a radically social constructivism. Constructivist Foundations 3(2): 91–94 http://constructivist.info/3/2/091
Krippendorff K. (2009) Conversation: Possibilities of its repair and descent into discourse and computation. Constructivist Foundations 4(3): 138–150 http://constructivist.info/4/3/138
Kuhn T. S. (1970) The structure of scientific revolutions. Second edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Labov W. (2001) Uncovering the event structure of a narrative. In: Tannen D. & Alatis J. E. (eds.) Georgetown university round table on languages and linguistics 2001. Georgetown University Press, Washington DC: 63–83. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lenartowicz M. (2016) Creatures of the semiosphere: A problematic third party in the “humans plus technology” cognitive architecture of the future global superintelligence. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. Published 15 July 2016 online ahead of print. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lenartowicz M., Weinbaum D. R. & Braathen P. (2016) Social systems: Complex adaptive loci of cognition. Emergence: Complexity & Organization 18(2) https://journal.emergentpublications.com/article/social-systems/.
Lenartowicz M., Weinbaum D. R. & Braathen P. (2016) The individuation of social systems. Procedia Computer Science 88. In press. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lew B. & Cater B. (2006) The telegraph, co-ordination of tramp shipping, and growth in world trade, 1870–1910. European Review of Economic History 10: 147–173. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Louckx K. & Vanderstraeten R. (2014) Statistics and state-istics: Exclusion categories in the population census (Belgium, 1846–1930) The Sociological Review 62(3): 530–546. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Luhmann N. (1975) Einführende Bemerkungen zu einer Theorie symbolisch generalisierter Kommunikationsmedien. In: Soziologische Aufklärung 2: Aufsätze zur Theorie der Gesellschaft. Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen: 170–192. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Luhmann N. (1984) Soziale Systeme. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. English translation: Luhmann N. (1995) Social systems. Stanford University Press, Stanford. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Luhmann N. (1985) Society, meaning, religion – based on self-reference. Sociological Analysis 46(1): 5–20 http://cepa.info/2996
Luhmann N. (1995) Die Kunst der Gesellschaft [The art of society]. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Luhmann N. (1995) Social systems. Stanford University Press, Stanford. German original published as: Luhmann N. (1984) Soziale Systeme. Grundriß einer allgemeinen Theorie. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Luhmann N. (1995) Soziologische Aufklärung 6: Die Soziologie und der Mensch [Sociological enlightenment 6: Sociology and man]. Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Luhmann N. (1997) Die Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft [The society of society]. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Luhmann N. (2000) The reality of the mass media. Translated by Kathleen Cross. Stanford University Press, Stanford CA. German original published in 1996. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Luhmann N. (2002) Theories of distinction: Redescribing the descriptions of modernity. Stanford University Press, Stanford. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Luhmann N. (2008) Einführung in die Systemtheorie [Introduction to systems theory]. Fourth edition. Carl Auer, Heidelberg. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Luhmann N. (2012) Theory of society. Volume 1. Stanford University Press, Stanford CA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Luhmann N. (2013) Theory of society. Volume 2. Stanford University Press, Stanford CA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Marx K. (1973) Grundrisse: Foundations of the critique of political economy (rough draft) Penguin, Harmondsworth. Originally published in 1857. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. & Varela F. J. (1998) The tree of knowledge: The biological roots of human understanding. Shambhala, Boston. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. (1978) Biology of language: The epistemology of reality. In: Miller G. & Lenneberg E. (eds.) Psychology and biology of language and thought: Essays in honor of Eric Lenneberg. Academic Press, New York: 27–63 http://cepa.info/549
Maturana H. R. (1980) Biology of cognition. In: Maturana H. R. & Varela F. J., Autopoiesis and cognition: The realization of the living. Reidel, Boston: 5–58. Originally published in 1970 http://cepa.info/535
Maturana H. R. (1988) Reality: The search for objectivity or the quest for a compelling argument. Irish Journal of Psychology 9(1): 25–82 http://cepa.info/598
Maturana H. R. (2015) What is sociology? Constructivist Foundations 10(2): 176–179 http://constructivist.info/10/2/176
Maturana H. R., Mpodozis J. & Letelier J. C. (1995) Brain, language and the origin of human mental functions. Biological Research 28(1): 15–26 http://cepa.info/642
McHoul A. & Rapley M. (2003) What can psychological terms actually do? (Or: If Sigmund calls, tell him it didn’t work). Journal of Pragmatics 35(4): 507–522. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Mills C. W. (1940) Situated action and vocabularies of motive. American Sociological Review 5(6): 904–913. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Mitterer J. (2001) Die Flucht aus der Beliebigkeit [The flight from contingency]. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main. Republished in 2011 with a new foreword by Velbrück Wissenschaft, Weilerswist. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Palmaru R. (2009) Kujutluste ühiskond [The society of imagery]. Akadeemia Nord, Tallinn. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Palmaru R. (2012) Making sense and meaning: On the role of communication and culture in the reproduction of social systems. Constructivist Foundations 8(1): 63–75 http://constructivist.info/8/1/063
Palmaru R. (2014) Communication and media studies in crisis. Constructivist Foundations 10(1): 150–152 http://constructivist.info/10/1/150
Palmaru R. (2014) How can a social system be autopoietic? Constructivist Foundations 9(2): 170–172 http://constructivist.info/9/2/170
Parsons T. (1937) The structure of social action. Free Press, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Parsons T. (1951) The social system. Free Press, New York. https://archive.org/details/socialsystem00pars.
Parsons T. (1977) Social systems and the evolution of action theory. Free Press, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Peters J. D. (1999) Speaking into the air: A history of the idea of communication. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Piaget J. & Inhelder B. (1969) The psychology of the child. Translated by H. Weaver. Basic Books, New York. French original published as an article in 1950. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Piaget J. (1952) The origins of intelligence in children. International Universities Press, New York. French original published in 1936. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Piaget J. (1954) The construction of reality in the child. Translated by Margaret Cook. Basic Books, New York. French original published as: Piaget J. (1937) La construction du réel chez l’enfant. Delachaux et Niestlé, Neuchâtel. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Piaget J. (1968) The role of the concept of equilibrium in psychology explication. In: Piaget J., Six psychological studies. Translated by Anita Tenzer. Vintage Books, New York: 100–115. French original published in 1959. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Piaget J. (1997) Development and learning. In: Gauvain M. & Cole G. M. (eds.) Readings on the development of children. Second Edition. W. H. Freeman, New York: 19–28 http://cepa.info/3043
Premack D. (1990) The infant’s theory of self-propelled objects. Cognition 36(1): 1–16. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Quandt T. & Scheufele B. (eds.) (2011) Ebenen der Kommunikation. Mikro-Meso-Makro-Links in der Kommunikationswissenschaft [Levels of communication: Micro-meso-macro links in communication studies]. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Riegler A. (2005) Act always so as to increase the number of scientific perspectives: Introduction to the Heinz von Foester volume. Kybernetes 34(1–2): 6–14 http://cepa.info/1780
Sacks H. (1992) Lectures on conversation. Basil Blackwell, Oxford. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Sandbothe M. (2007) Introduction. In: Schmidt S. J., Histories & discourses: Re-writing Constructivism. Imprint Academic, Exeter UK: 1–18 http://cepa.info/3044
Saussure F. de (2000) Course in general linguistics. Edited by C. Bally and A. Sechehaye with the collaboration of A. Riedlinger, translated and annotated by R. Harris. Duckworth, London. Originally published in French as: Saussure F. de (1916) Cours de linguistique générale. Payot, Lausanne. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schmidt S. J. & Zurstiege G. (2007) Kommunikationswissenschaft: Systematik und Ziele [Communication science: Systematics and objectives]. Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schmidt S. J. (1994) Kognitive Autonomie und soziale Orientierung: Konstruktivistische Bemerkungen zum Zusammenhang von Kognition, Kommunikation, Medien und Kultur [Cognitive autonomy and social orientation: Constructivist remarks on the relationship between cognition, communication, media and culture]. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schmidt S. J. (2001) Media societies: Fiction machines. In: Grant C. B. & McLaughlin D. (eds.) Critical studies. Language – meaning – social construction: Interdisciplinary studies. Rodopi, Amsterdam: 11–24. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schmidt S. J. (2007) Histories and discourses: On rewriting constructivism. Imprint Academic, Exeter UK. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schmidt S. J. (2008) Media philosophy: A reasonable programme? In: Hrachovec H. & Pichler A. (eds.) Philosophy of the information society. Proceedings of the 30th international Wittgensten symposium, Kirchberg am Wechsel, Austria 2007. Volume 2. Ontos, Frankfurt: 89–105. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schmidt S. J. (2011) From objects to process: A proposal to rewrite radical constructivism. Constructivist Foundations 7(1): 1–9 http://constructivist.info/7/1/001
Scholl A. (2010) Radical constructivism in communication science. Constructivist Foundations 6(1): 51–57 http://constructivist.info/6/1/051
Searle J. R. (1965) What is speech act? In: Martinich A. P. (ed.) The philosophy of language. Oxford University Press, New York: 130–141. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Shannon C. & Weaver W. (1964) The mathematical theory of communication. The University of Illinois, Urbana IL. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Uexküll J. von (1909) Umwelt und Innenwelt der Tiere. J. Springer, Berlin. English translation: Von Uexküll J. (1992) A stroll through the worlds of animals and men: A picture book of invisible worlds. Semiotica 89(4): 319–391 http://cepa.info/2404
Vanderstraeten R. (2004) Emerging mechanisms of educational interaction. Educational Review 56 (1): 43–52. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Vanderstraeten R. (2012) Rewriting theory: From autopoiesis to communication. Systems Research and Behavioral Science 29(4): 377–386 http://cepa.info/3665
Vanderstraeten R. (2015) Inclusion ideals and inclusion problems: Parsons and Luhmann on religion and secularization. Acta Sociologica 58(2): 173–185. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Vermeer H. J. (2006) Luhmann’s “social systems” theory: Preliminary fragments for a theory of translation. Frank & Timme, Berlin. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Völker J. & Scholl A. (2014) Do the media fail to represent reality? a constructivist and second-order critique of the research on environmental media coverage and its normative implications. Constructivist Foundations 10(1): 140–149 http://constructivist.info/10/1/140
Vygotsky L. S. (1929) Die genetischen Wurzeln des Denkens und der Sprache. Unter dem Banner des Marxismus 3(3): 450–470. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Vygotsky L. S. (1929) Die genetischen Wurzeln des Denkens und der Sprache. Unter dem Banner des Marxismus 3(4): 607–624. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Vygotsky L. S. (1997) The problem of the development of higher mental functions. In: Rieber R. W. (ed.) The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky. Voume 4: The history of the development of higher mental functions. Plenum, New York: 1–26. Originally published in 1960. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Vygotsky L. S. (1999) Tool and sign in the development of the child. In: Rieber R. W. (ed.) The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky. Volume 6: Scientific legacy. Plenum, New York: 3–68. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Weinbaum D. R. & Veitas V. (2016) Open ended intelligence: The individuation of intelligent agents. Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence. Published 24 May 2016 online ahead of print. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Weiss P. (1969) The living system: Determinism stratified. Studium Generale 22: 361–400. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Wittgenstein L. (1956) Philosophical investigations. Translated by G. E. M. Anscombe. MacMillan, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar

Comments: 0

To stay informed about comments to this publication and post comments yourself, please log in first.