Volume 6 · Number 3 · Pages 334–342
The Specificity of Immunologic Observations

Nelson Monteiro Vaz

Download the full text in
PDF (399 kB)

> Citation > Similar > References > Add Comment

Abstract

Context: Immunity includes cognitive concepts: the organism is thought to specifically recognize foreign materials and develop a memory of these encounters. Vaccines are thought to work by enhancing this immunological memory. Lymphocytes are key cells and specific antibodies are key molecules in immune recognition. Antibodies are blood proteins called “immunoglobulins.” Spontaneously formed immunoglobulins are seen as “natural” antibodies to dietary components and commensal bacteria. Immune cognition is used simply as a didactic metaphor. Problem: Do the cognitive aspects of immunology stem from the activities of cells and molecules, or are they ascribed by the immunologist operating as a human observer? (1) An immense variety of immunoglobulins may bind to the same antigen with different binding energies. It is the immunologist who arbitrates the boundary between those that are specific (and declared antibodies) and those that are not. Specific antibodies serve as functional labels pasted onto natural immunoglobulins, as if they were recognizing elements. Is this “arbitration” the true cognitive event ascribed to immunoglobulins and lymphocytes? (2) A major impasse exists between progress in experimental immunology and its translation into clinical results. A proper understanding of immunological activity demands a wider view of an organism’s biology and, also, of the interference of human observers in delineating experimental realities, such as the specificity of immune recognition. Maturana’s biology of cognition and language provides one such approach. Method: Use of Maturana’s biology of cognition and language concepts to describe immunological activity. Results: A whole new understanding of immunological activity is suggested. Implications: A major change in the way of seeing is proposed that may eventually help the translation of this knowledge into clinical results. Furthermore, the immune system may also become a proper model for cognitive analyses.

Key words: immunology, antibody, immunoglobulin, specificity, observer, reality

Citation

Vaz N. M. (2011) The specificity of immunologic observations. Constructivist Foundations 6(3): 334–342. http://constructivist.info/6/3/334

Export article citation data: Plain Text · BibTex · EndNote · Reference Manager (RIS)

Similar articles

Schmidt S. J. (2011) From Objects to Processes: A Proposal to Rewrite Radical Constructivism
Vaz N. M. & Botelho Andrade L. A. (2017) The Epigenetic Immune Network
Maturana H. R. (2012) Reflections on My Collaboration with Francisco Varela
Vörös S. & Riegler A. (2017) A Plea for not Watering Down the Unseemly: Reconsidering Francisco Varela’s Contribution to Science
Steffe L. P. (2010) Consequences of Rejecting Constructivism: “Hold Tight and Pedal Fast”. Commentary on Slezak’s “Radical Constructivism: Epistemology, Education and Dynamite”

References

Bandeira A., Coutinho A., Carnaud C., Jacquemart F. & Forni L. (1989) Transplantation tolerance correlates with high levels of T and B lymphocyte activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 86: 272–276. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Behring E. von, Kitasato S. (1890) The mechanism of immunity in animals to diphteria and tetanus. In: Brock E. T. (ed.) Milestones in microbiology. American Society of Microbiology, Washington: 138–140. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bernabé R. R., Coutinho A., Cazenave P.-A. & Forni L. (1981) Suppression of a recurrent idiotype results in profound alterations of the whole B cell compartment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 78: 6416–6421. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Besredka A. (1901) Les autohémolysines naturelles. Annales d’Institute Pasteur 15: 785–807. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Billingham R. E., Brent L. & Medawar P. B. (1953) Actively acquired tolerance of foreign cells. Nature 172: 603–606. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bos N. A., Benner R., Wostmann B. S. & Pleasants J. R. (1986) “Background” Ig-secreting cells in pregnant germfree mice fed a chemically defined ultrafiltered diet. Journal of Reproductive Immunology 9: 237–246. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Burnet F. M. (1957) A modification of Jerne’s theory of antibody production using the concept of clonal selection. Australian Journal of Science 20: 67–69. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Burnet F. M. (1959) The clonal selection theory of acquired immunity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Cadwell K., Patel K. K., Maloney N. S., Liu T.-C., Ng A. C. Y., Storer C. E., Head R. D., Xavier R. J., Stappenbeck T. S. & Virgin H. W. (2010) Virus-plus-susceptibility gene interaction determines Crohn’s disease gene Atg16L1 phenotypes in intestine. Cell 141: 1135–1145. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Carvalho C. R., Lenzi H. L., Correa-Oliveira R. & Vaz N. M. (2002) Indirect effects of oral tolerance to ovalbumin interfere with the immune responses triggered by Schistosoma mansoni eggs. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 35: 1195–1199. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Carvalho C. R., Verdolin B. A. & Vaz N. M. (1996) Indirect effects of oral tolerance cannot be ascribed to bystander suppression. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 45: 276–281. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Cherniak L. & Tauber A. I. (1991) The dialectical self: Immunology’s contribution. In: Tauber A. E. (ed.) Organism and the origins of the self. Cambridge University Press, New York: 109–156. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Cohen I. R. (1992) The cognitive principle challenges clonal selection. Immunology Today 13: 490–494. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Cohen I. R. (2000) Tending Adam’s garden. Academic Press, San Diego. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Cohn M., Mitchison A. V., Paul W. E., Silverstein A. M., Talmage D. W. & Weigert M. (2007) Reflections on the clonal-selection theory. Nature Reviews Immunology 7: 823–830. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Costa R. A., Ruiz-de-Souza V., Azevedo G. M. Jr., Gava E., Kitten G. T., Vaz N. M. & Carvalho C. R. (2011) Indirect effects of oral tolerance improve wound healing in skin. Wound Repair and Regeneration. In press. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Coutinho A. (1995) The network theory: 21 Years later. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 42: 3–8. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Coutinho A. (2000) Germ-line selection ensures embryonic autoreactivity and a positive discrimination of self mediated by supraclonal mechanisms. Seminars in Immunology 12: 205–213; discussion 257–344. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Coutinho A. (2002) Immunology at the crossroads: As decades of research have resulted in few clinical applications, it is time to think about new research strategies to understand the workings of the immune system. EMBO Report 3: 1008–1011. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Coutinho A. (2003) Will the idiotypic network help to solve natural tolerance? Trends in Immunology 24: 53–54. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Coutinho A., Forni L., Holmberg D., Ivars F. & Vaz N. (1984) From an antigen-centered, clonal perspective of immune responses to an organism-centered network perspective of autonomous activity in a self referential immune system. Immunological Reviews 79: 151–168. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Davies J. M. & O’Hehir R. E. (2004) VH gene usage in immunoglobulin E responses of seasonal rhinitispatients allergic to grass pollen is oligoclonal and antigen driven. Clinicaland Experimental Allergy 34: 429–436. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dietrich G., Varela F. J., Hurez V., Bouanani M. & Kazatchkine M. D. (1993) Selection of the expressed B cell repertoire by infusion of normal immunoglobulin G in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis. European Journal of Immunology 23: 2945–2950. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dighiero G., Lymberi P., Holmberg D., Lundqvist I., Coutinho A. & Avrameas S. (1985) High frequency of natural autoantibodies in normal newborn mice. The Journal of Immunology 134: 765–771. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ehrlich P. (1900) On immunity, with special reference to cell life. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London) 66: 424–448. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Eichmann K. (2008) The network collective – Rise and fall of a scientific paradigm. Birkhäuser, Berlin. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
2005) Increased polyclonal immunoglobulin reactivity toward human and bacterial proteins is associated with clinical protection in human Plasmodium infection. Malaria Journal 4: 5–11. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Finger E., Brodeur P. H., Hernandez H. J. & Stadecker M. J. (2005) Expansion of CD4 T cells expressing a highly restricted TCR structure specific for a single parasite epitope correlates with high pathology in murine schistosomiasis. European Journal of Immunology 35: 2659–2669. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Forni L., Coutinho A., Kohler G. & Jerne N. K. (1980) IgM antibodies induce the production of antibodies of the same specificity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 77: 1125–1128. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Haury M., Grandien A., Sundblad A., Coutinho A. & Nóbrega A. (1994) Global analysis of antibody repertoires. 1. An immunoblot method for the quantitative screening of a large number of reactivities. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 39: 79–87. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Haury M., Sundblad A., Grandien A., Barreau C., Coutinho A. & Nóbrega A. (1997) The repertoire of serum IgM in normal mice is largely independent of external antigenic contact. European Journal of Immunology 27: 1557–1563. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Holmberg D., Forsgren S., Forni L., Ivars F. & Coutinho A. (1984) Idiotypic determinants of natural IgM antibodies resemble self Ia antigens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 81: 3175–3179. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Holmberg D., Ivars F. & Coutinho A. (1983) An example of major histocompatibility complex-linked control of idiotypic interactions. European Journal of Immunology 13: 82–85. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Holmberg D., Wennerstrom G., Andrade L., Coutinho A. (1986) The high idiotypic connectivity of “natural” newborn antibodies is not found in adult mitogen-reactive B cell repertoires. European Journal of Immunology 16: 82–87. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Huetz F., Sciard-Larsson E. L., Pereira P., Portnoi D. & Coutinho (1988) T cell dependence of the “natural” autoreactive B cell activation in the spleen of normal mice. European Journal of Immunology 18: 1615–22. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Inwood M. (1992) A Hegel dictionary. Blackwell, Oxford. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Jerne N. K. (1951) A study of avidity. Patholology Microbiology Scandinavica 87 (Supplement 1): 1–183. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Jerne N. K. (1955) The natural selection theory of antibody formation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 41: 849–857. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Jerne N. K. (1967) Waiting for the end. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 32: 591–603. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Jerne N. K. (1974) Network nortions. Annual report of the Basel Institute for Immunology 1974: 6. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Jerne N. K. (1974) Towards a network theory of the immune system. Annales d’Immunologie 125C: 373–392. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Kuhn T. S. (1965) The structure of scientific revolutions. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lacroix-Desmazes S., Mouthon L., Kaveri S. V., Kazatchkine M. D. & Weksler M. E. (1999) Stability of natural self-reactive antibody repertoires during aging. Journal of Clinical Immunology 19: 26–34. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Landsteiner K. (1901) The agglutinative properties of normal human blood. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 14: 424–448. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lawrence H. S. (1970) Editorial cellular immunology. Cellular Immunology 1: 1–2. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Leavy O. (2007) Modelling Omenn syndrome. Nature Reviews Immunology 7: 416–417. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lettvin J. Y., Maturana H. R., McCulloch W. S. & Pitts W. H. (1959) What the frog’s eye tells the frog’s brain. Proceedings of the Institute of Radic Engineers 47(11): 1940–1951. Reprinted in: McCulloch W. S. (ed.) (1975) Embodiments of mind. MIT Press, Cambridge MA: 230–256. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Liston A. (2008) Autoimmunity: Beyond the immune system. Immunology and Cell Biology 86: 295–296. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lundqvist I., Coutinho A., Varela F. & Holmberg D. (1989) Evidence for a functional idiotypic network among natural antibodies in normal mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 86: 5074–5078. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Madi A., Kenett D. Y., Bransburg-Zabary S., Merb I. Y., Quintana F. J., Tauber A. I., Cohen I. R. & Ben-Jacob E. (2011) Network theory analysis of antibody-antigen reactivity data: The immune trees at birth and adulthood. PLoS ONE 6, e17445. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Martinez C.-A., Marcos M. A. R., Pereira P., Marquez C., Toribio M., Cazenave P.-A. & Coutinho A. (1987) Turning (Ir-gene) low-responders into high-responders by anti-body manipulation of the developing immune system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 84: 3812–3816. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. & Poerksen B. (2004) From being to doing: The origins of biology of cognition. Carl-Auer, Heidelberg. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. & Varela F. J. (1980) Autopoiesis and cognition. Reidel, Dordrecht. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. & Varela F. J. (1984) El Arbol del conocimiento. Las bases biologicas del entendimiento humano. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. & Varela F. J. (1998) De máquinas e seres vivos. Second Edition. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago. First edition published in 1973. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. (1969) Neurophysiology of cognition. In: Garvin P. (ed.) Cognition: A multiple view. Spartan Books, New York: 3–23. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. (1970) Biology of cognition. Biological Computer Laboratory Report 9, Department of Electrical Engneering, University of Illinois, Urbana IL. Reprinted In: Maturana H. R. & Varela F. J. (1980) Autopoiesis and cognition. Reidel, Dordrecht: 1–58. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. (1978) Biology of language: Epistemology of reality. In: Miller G. A. & Lenneberg E. (eds.) Psychology and biology of language and thought. Academic Press, New York: 27–64. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. (1983) Comment on Fedanzo Jr., Anthony All Things are full of gods – or information. Journal of Social and Biological Structures 6: 155–158. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. (1985) The mind is not in the head. Journal of Social and Biological Structures 8(4): 308–310. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. (1987) Everything is said by an Observer. In: Thompson W. I. (ed.) Gaia: A way of knowing. Political implications of the new biology. Lindisfarne Press, New York: 11–36. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. (2002) Autopoiesis, structural coupling and cognition: A history of these and other notions in the biology of cognition. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 9: 5–34. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. (2005) The origin and conservation of self-consciousness: Reflections on four questions by Heinz von Foerster. In: Riegler A. (ed.) Heinz von Foerster – in memoriam. Kybernetes: The International Journal of Systems & Cybernetics 34(1–2): 54–88. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R., Uribe G. & Frenk S. (1968) A biological theory of relativistic colour coding in the primate retina. Archives of Biology and Medicine Experiments 1: 1–30. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Matzinger P. (1994) Tolerance, danger, and the extended family. Annual Review of Immunology 12: 991–1045. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Medawar P. B. (1944) The behaviour and fate of skin autografts and skin homografts in rabbits. Journal of Anatomy 78: 176–199. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Miller J. F. A. P. (1961) Immunological role of the thymus. Lancet 278: 748–749. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Mpodozis J. (2011) A equação fundamental da Biologia. In: Vaz N. M., Mpodozis J. M., Botelho J. F. & Ramos G. C. (eds.) Onde está o organismo? Derivas e outras histórias na Biologia e na Imunologia. Editora UFSC, Florianópolis S. C. Brazil: 25–44. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nóbrega A., Haury M., Grandien A., Malanchere E., Sundblad A. & Coutinho A. (1993) Global analysis of antibody repertoires. II. Evidence for specificity, self-selection and the immunological “homunculus” of antibodies in normal serum. European Journal of Immunology 23: 2851–2859. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Orwell G. (1945) Animal farm. Secker and Warburg. London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Parnes O. (2004) From interception to incorporation: Degeneracy and promiscuous recognition as precursors of a paradigm shift in immunology. Molecular Immunology 40: 985–991. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Pereira P., Forni L., Larsson E.-L., Cooper M., Heuser C. & Coutinho A. (1986) Autonomous activation of B and T lymphocytes in antigen-free mice. European Journal of Immunology 16: 685–688. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Podolsky S. H. & Tauber A. I. (1997) The generation of diversity: Clonal selection theory and the rise of molecular immunology. Harvard University Press, Cambridge. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Pordeus V., Ramos G. C., Carvalho C. R., Barbosa de Castro A. Jr., Cunha A. P. & Vaz N. M. (2009) Immunopathology and oligoclonal T-cell expansions. Observations in immunodeficiency, infections, allergy and autoimmune diseases. Current Trends in Immunology 10: 21–29. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Proulx J. (2008) Some differences between Maturana and Varela’s theory of cognition and constructivism. Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity and Education 5: 11–26. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Quintana F. J., Farez M. F., Viglietta V., Iglesias A. H., Merbl Y., Izquierdo G., Lucas M., Basso A. S., Khoury S. J., Lucchinetti C. F., Cohen I. R. & Weiner H. W. (2008) Antigen microarrays identify unique serum autoantibody signatures in clinical and pathologic subtypes of multiple sclerosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105(48): 18889–18894. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Quintana F. J., Merbl Y., Sahar E., Hagedorn P. H., Domany E. & Cohen I. R. (2006) Antigen-chip technology for accessing global information about the state of the body. Lupus 15: 428–430. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ramos G. C. (2011) Inflamação como um fenômeno do desenvolvimento animal. In: Vaz N. M., Mpodozis J. M., Botelho J. F. & Ramos G. C. (eds.) Onde está o organismo? Derivas e outras histórias na Biologia e na Imunologia. Editora UFSC, Florianópolis S. C. Brazil: 125–142. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ramos G. C. (2011) Oral pretreatment with heart antigens modifies post-infarct immunological activity and improves cardiac repair in rats. Autoimmunity (submitted). ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ramos G. C., Rodrigues C. M., Azevedo G. M. J., Pinho V., Carvalho C. R. & Vaz N. M. (2008) Cell-mediated immune response to unrelated proteins and unspecific inflammation blocked by orally tolerated proteins. Immunology 126: 354–362. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ramos G. C., Vaz N. M., Saalfeld K. (2006) Wings for flying, lymphocytes for defence: Spandrels, exaptation and specific immunity. Complexus 3: 211–216. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rohde M. & Stewart J. (2008) Ascriptional and “genuine” autonomy. Biosystems 91: 424–433. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schopenhauer A. (1969) The world as will and representation. Volume 2. Translated by E. F. J. Payne. Dover, New York. Original publish in German as Schopenhauer A. (1819) Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung. F. A. Brockhaus, Leipzig. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Silverstein A. M. (2009) A history of immunology. Second Edition. Academic Press, San Diego. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Soderqvist T. (2003) Science as autobiography. The troubled life of Niels Jerne. Yale University Press, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Stewart J. & Coutinho A. (2004) The affirmation of self: A new perspective on the immune system. Artificial Life 10: 261–276. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Stewart J. & Varela F. J. (1989) Exploring the meaning of connectivity in the immune network. Immunological Reviews 110: 37–61. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Stewart J. & Varela F. J. (1990) Dynamics of a class of immune networks. II. Oscilatory activity of cellular and humoral components. Journal of Theoretical Biology 144: 103–115. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Stewart J. & Varela F. J. (1991) Morphogenesis in shape space: Elementary meta-dynamics of immune networks. Journal of Theoretical Biology 153: 477–498. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Stewart J. & Vaz N. M. (1990) Os dois paradigmas da Imunologia. Ciência e Cultura (São Paulo) 42: 678–683. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Talmage D. W. (1957) Allergy and immunology. Annual Reviews of Medicine 8: 239–256. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Talmage D. W. (1959) Immunological specificity, unique combinations of selected natural globulins provide an alternative to the classical concept. Science 129: 1643–1648. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Talmage D. W. (1995) Origins of the cell selection theories of antibody formation. In: Gallagher R. B., Gilder J., Nossal G. J. V. & Salvatore G. (eds.) Immunology: The making of a modern science. Academic Press, San Diego: 23–38. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Tauber A. I. (1991) The dialectic self: Immunology’s contribution. In: Tauber A. E. (ed.) Organism and the origins of self. Kluwer, Dordrecht: 109–156. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Tauber A. I. (1994) The immune self: Theory or metaphor? Cambridge University Press, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Tauber A. I. (1997) Historical and philosophical perspectives on immune cognition, Journal of the History of Biology 30: 419–440. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Tauber A. I. (1998) Conceptual shifts in immunology: Comments on the “two-way paradigm.” In: K. Schaffner F. & Starzl T. E. (eds.) Paradigm changes in organ transplantation. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19: 457–473. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Tauber A. I. (2000) Moving beyond the immune self? Seminars in Immunology 12: 241–248. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Tauber A. I. (2005) Patient autonomy and the ethics of responsibility. MIT Press, Cambridge. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Tauber A. I. (2008) The immune system and its ecology. Philosophy of Science 75: 224–245. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Tauber A. I. (2009) The biological notion of self and nonself. In: Zalta E. N. (ed.) Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/biology-self.
Tauber A. I. (2010) A tale of two immunologies. In: Grignolio A. (ed.) Immunology today. Three historical perspectives under three theoretical horizons. Bononia University Press, Bologna: 15–34. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Tauber A. I. (ed.) (1991) Organism and the origins of self. Kluwer, Dordrecht. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Varela F. J. & Coutinho A. (1991) Immuknowledge: The immune system as a learning process of somatic individuation. In: Brockman J. (ed.) Doing science. The reality club. Phoenix Press, New York: 238–256. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Varela F. J. & Coutinho A. (1991) Second generation immune networks. Immunology Today 12: 159–166. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Varela F. J. (1991) Organism: A meshwork of selfless selves. In: Tauber A. I. (ed.) Organism and the origins of self. Kluwer, Dordrecht: 79–107. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Varela F. J. (1995) The emergent self. In: Brockman J. (ed.) The third culture. Beyond the scientific revolution. Simon & Schuster, New York: 209–222. http://www.edge.org/documents/ThirdCulture/t-Ch.12.html.
Varela F. J., Anderssen A., Dietrich G., Sundblad A., Holmberg D., Kazatchkine M. & Coutinho A. (1991) Population dynamics of natural antibodies in normal and auto-immune individuals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 88: 5917–5921. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Varela F. J., Coutinho A. & Stewart J. (1991) Second generation immune networks: Beyond defense. In: Stein W. D. & Varela F. J. (eds.) Thinking about Biology. Addison-Wesley, Redwood City: 215–230. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Varela F. J., Coutinho A., Dupire B. & Vaz N. N. (1988) Cognitive networks: Immune, neural and otherwise. In: Perelson A. S. (ed.) Theoretical immunology. Part Two. Addison-Wesley: Redwood City: 359–375. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Varela F. J., Thompson E. & Rosch E. (1995) The embodied mind. Cognitive science and human experience. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Vasconcellos R., Nóbrega A., Haury M., Viale A. C. & Coutinho A. (1998) Genetic control of natural antibody repertoires: I. IgH, MHC and TCR beta loci. European Journal of Immunology 28: 1104–1115. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Vaz N. M. & Carvalho C. R. (1993) Immunological specificity as metaphor. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 26: 665–671. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Vaz N. M. & Varela F. J. (1978) Self and non-sense: An organism-centerd approach to immunology. Medical Hypotheses 4: 231–257. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Vaz N. M., Faria A. M. C., Verdolin B. A. & Carvalho C. R. (1997) Immaturity, ageing and oral tolerance. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 46: 225–229. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Vaz N. M., Faria A. M. C., Verdolin B. A., Silva Neto A. F., Menezes J. S. & Carvalho C. R. (2003) The conservative physiology of the immune system. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 36: 13–22. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Vaz N. M., Martinez C.-A. & Coutinho A. (1984) The uniqueness and boundaries of the idiotypic self. In: Koehler H., Cazenave P.-A. & Urbain J. (eds.) Idiotypy in Biology and Medicine. Academic Press, New York: 44–58. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Vaz N. M., Ramos G. C., Pordeus V. & Carvalho C. R. (2006) The conservative physiology of the immune system. A non-metaphoric approach to immunological activity. Clinical and Developmental Immunology 13: 133–142. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Vaz N. M., Varela F. J. (1978) Self and nonsense: An organism-centered approach to immunology. Medical Hypothesis 4: 231–257. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Vaz N., Faria A. M. C., Menezes J. S., Verdolin B. A., Silva Neto A. F. & Carvalho C. R. (2003) The conservative physiology of the immune system. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 36: 13–22. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Verdolin B. A., Ficker S. M., Faria A. M. C., Vaz N. M. & Carvalho C. R. (2001) Stabilization of serum antibody responses triggered by initial mucosal contact with the antigen independently of oral tolerance induction. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 34: 211–219. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Whitaker R. (1998) Encyclopaedia autopoietica. http://www.cybsoc.org/EA.html
Whitaker R. (2001) The observer’s web: autopoiesis and enaction. http://www.enolagaia.com/AT.html
Wucherpfennig K. W., Allen P. M., Celada F., Cohen I. R., De Boer R. J., Christopher Garcia K., Goldstein B., Greenspan R., Hafler D., Hodgkin P., Huseby E. B., Krakauer D. C., Nemazeem D., Perelson A. S., Pinilla C., Strong R. K. & Sercarz E. E. (2007) Polyspecificity of T. cell and B. cell receptor recognition. Seminars in Immunology 19: 216–224. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar

Comments: 0

To stay informed about comments to this publication and post comments yourself, please log in first.