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Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Science: Logic, Strategies, Methods” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: Second-order science requires a specific methodology. It thereby reverses the classical observer-observed relation in favor of the observed - i.e., the first-order observers - if the principle of autopoiesis is acknowledged.
Buchinger E. (2014) Second-order observation in social science: Autopoietic foundations. Constructivist Foundations 10(1): 32–33. http://constructivist.info/10/1/032
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