Volume 11 · Number 3 · Pages 475–478
Second-Order Cybernetics Needs a Unifying Methodology

Thomas R. Flanagan

Log in to download the full text for free

> Citation > Similar > References > Add Comment


Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: Theory without a strong methodology is stranded in philosophy. Principles devolved from theory can be applied to situations in the arena of practice in many ways; however, a continually improving science must refine its theories with feedback from data drawn from the use of continually improving sets of codified methodologies. Second-order cybernetics is contingent upon sense-making within sapient systems. A perspective on cognitive science points toward the requirements for an enabling sense-making methodology for second-order cybernetic science.


Flanagan T. R. (2016) Second-order cybernetics needs a unifying methodology. Constructivist Foundations 11(3): 475–478. http://constructivist.info/11/3/475

Export article citation data: Plain Text · BibTex · EndNote · Reference Manager (RIS)

Comments: 0

To stay informed about comments to this publication and post comments yourself, please log in first.