Volume 13 · Number 1 · Pages 25–27
Moving Toward a Paradigm Shift by Developing that Paradigm Shift

Robert J. Martin

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Open peer commentary on the article “Mathematical Work of Francisco Varela” by Louis H. Kauffman. Upshot: Kauffman’s target article explicates Spencer Brown’s Laws of Form and Varela’s Calculus of Indications as a way of thinking about the observer and the observed. This commentary points out that thinking about observer and observed in this way can also be a way of thinking about learning and meaning.


Martin R. J. (2017) Moving toward a paradigm shift by developing that paradigm shift. Constructivist Foundations 13(1): 25–27. http://constructivist.info/13/1/025

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Foerster H. von (1973) On constructing a reality. In: Preiser W. F. E. (ed.) Environmental design research. Volume 2. Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg PA: 35–46. http://cepa.info/1278
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Maturana H. R. (1970) Biology of cognition. Biological Computer Laboratory (BCL) Research Report BCL 9.0. University of Illinois, Urbana. http://cepa.info/535 Reprinted as the first section in Maturana H. R. & Varela F. J. (1980) Autopoiesis and cognition: The realization of the living. Reidel, Dordrecht: 5–58.

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