Volume 14 · Number 2 · Pages 197–214
Applying the Neurophenomenological Approach to the Study of Trauma: Theory and Practice

Yochai Ataria, Mooli Lahad & Omer Horovitz

Download the full text in
PDF (1198 kB)

> Citation > Similar > References > Add Comment

Abstract

Context: Although trauma research has advanced immensely, the struggle to find effective treatment for posttraumatic survivors continues. It seems reasonable to say that, at present, our ability to treat those suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is, at the very least, limited. Problem: We argue that in order to confront the current crisis in the study of trauma - evidenced by our limited ability to offer successful treatment for those who develop PTSD - we must return to the subjective experience. Our claim is that only by applying a rigorous method to study the subjective experience will we be able to understand the meaning of neuronal activity associated with PTSD. Method: The neurophenomenological research program (NRP) is a working plan that enables us to create a solid and reliable link between the subjective experience and neuronal activity. Thus, the NRP allows us to (a) delve deeply (and rigorously) into the subjective experience and, by so doing, (b) extract the cognitive mechanism that constitutes the building blocks bridging between the subjective experience and neuronal activity. Following this, we will be able to (c) identify the relevant neuronal activity for the phenomenon under examination. Results: Based on previous studies among posttraumatic survivors, we suggest that two cognitive mechanisms are especially relevant for the study of trauma: the sense of body ownership (i.e., the sense that this is our own body) and the sense of agency (the sense that we control our body. The trade-off between these closely related, yet independent mechanisms is highly significant. We conclude the article with the presentation of a detailed working plan for the study of trauma - one that begins with the subject and returns to the subject. Implications: This article summarizes our struggle to conduct a phenomenological research in the study of trauma and our methodological efforts of the last ten years. It should help the beginner to avoid some mistakes that have been made in this long journey, yet obviously, each one must build their own route. Likewise, we suggest that phenomenologists, brain scientists and clinicians should find a way to cooperate. This shared effort might allow us to improve our understanding of the traumatic experience and its long-term implications; as such, we believe that in this process a better treatment could be developed. That being said, the limitation of our proposal is the difficulty of creating a shared language that bridges these different worlds. Constructivist content: We strongly embraces phenomenological approach together with enactivist/embodied theories.

Key words: Trauma, PTSD, treatment, neurophenomenology, subjective experience, introspection cognitive bridges, brain activity

Citation

Ataria Y., Lahad M. & Horovitz O. (2019) Applying the neurophenomenological approach to the study of trauma: Theory and practice. Constructivist Foundations 14(2): 197–214. https://constructivist.info/14/2/197

Export article citation data: Plain Text · BibTex · EndNote · Reference Manager (RIS)

Similar articles

Ataria Y., Lahad M. & Horovitz O. (2019) Authors’ Response: Whatever Works instead of All or Nothing
Vörös S. & Bitbol M. (2017) Enacting Enaction: A Dialectic Between Knowing and Being
Froese T., Gould C. & Barrett A. (2011) Re-Viewing from Within: A Commentary on First- and Second-Person Methods in the Science of Consciousness
Beaton M. (2013) Phenomenology and Embodied Action
Lloyd D. (2013) The Music of Consciousness: Can Musical Form Harmonize Phenomenology and the Brain?

References

Alexander W. (2012) Pharmacotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in combat veterans: Focus on antidepressants and atypical antipsychotic agents. P & T: A Peer-Reviewed Journal for Formulary Management 37(1): 32–38. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Anderzhanova E., Kirmeier T. & Wotjak C. T. (2017) Animal models in psychiatric research: The RDoC system as a new framework for endophenotype-oriented translational neuroscience. Neurobiology of Stress 7: 47–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ynstr.2017.03.003
Arieli A. & Ataria Y. (2018) Helplessness: The inability to know-that you don’t know-how. Philosophical Psychology 31(6): 948–968. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ataria Y. & Neria Y. (2013) Consciousness-body-time: How do people think lacking their body? Humans Studies 36(2): 159–178. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ataria Y. & Somer E. (2013) Total otherness in dissociative identity disorder. Journal for Otherness 4(1): 1–25. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ataria Y. (2010) Consciousness-body-time: How do people think lacking their body? MA Thesis, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ataria Y. (2014) Traumatic memories as black holes: A qualitative-phenomenological approach. Qualitative Psychology 1(2): 123–140. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ataria Y. (2015) Dissociation during trauma: The ownership-agency tradeoff model. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14(4): 1037–1053. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ataria Y. (2015) Sense of ownership and sense of agency during trauma. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14(1): 199–212. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ataria Y. (2015) The phenomenology of trauma: The case of dissociation during trauma. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ataria Y. (2015) Trauma from an enactive perspective: The collapse of the knowing-how structure. Adaptive Behavior 23(3): 143–154. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ataria Y. (2015) Where do we end and where does the world begin? The case of insight meditation. Philosophical Psychology 28(8): 1128–1146 https://cepa.info/4358
Ataria Y. (2016) The witness’s death: Primo Levi and Georges Perec. In: Ataria Y., Gurevich D., Peday H. & Neria Y. (eds.) Interdisciplinary handbook of trauma and culture. Springer, New York: 195–216. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ataria Y. (2017) The structural trauma of Western culture. Palgrave Macmillan, New York:. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ataria Y. (2018) Body disownership in complex post-traumatic stress disorder. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ataria Y., Dor-Ziderman Y. & Berkovich-Ohana A. (2015) How does it feel to lack a sense of boundaries? A case study of a long-term mindfulness meditator. Consciousness and Cognition 37: 133–147. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Barnett L. A. (2007) The nature of playfulness in young adults. Personality and Individual Differences 43(4): 949–958. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Benjamin L. T. (2007) A brief history of modern psychology. Blackwell, Malden. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bisson J. I., Cosgrove S., Lewis C. & Roberts N. P. (2015) Post-traumatic stress disorder. The BMJ 351: h6161. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4663500
Bitbol M. & Petitmengin C. (2017) Neurophenomenology and the micro-phenomenological interview. In: Schneider S. & Velmans M. (eds.) The Blackwell companion to consciousness. Second edition. Wiley, Chichester: 726–739 https://cepa.info/4120
Boring E. G. (1953) A history of introspection. Psychological Bulletin 50(3): 169–189. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Boscarino J. A. (1995) Post-traumatic stress and associated disorders among Vietnam veterans: The significance of combat exposure and social support. Journal of Traumatic Stress 8(2): 317–336. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Braun N., Debener S., Spychala N., Bongartz E., Sörös P., Müller H. H. O. & Philipsen A. (2018) The senses of agency and ownership: A review. Frontiers in Psychology 9: 535. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00535
Brewin C. R. (2007) Autobiographical memory for trauma: Update on four controversies. Memory 15(3) 227–248. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Cha J., Greenberg T., Song I., Blair Simpson H., Posner J. & Mujica-Parodi L. R. (2016) Abnormal hippocampal structure and function in clinical anxiety and comorbid depression. Hippocampus 26(5): 545–553. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Chao L., Weiner M. & Neylan T. (2013) Regional cerebral volumes in veterans with current versus remitted posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Research 213(3): 193–201. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Chen Y., Fu K., Feng C., Tang L., Zhang J., Huan Y., Cui J., Mu Y., Qi S., Xiong L. & Ma C. (2012) Different regional gray matter loss in recent onset PTSD and non PTSD after a single prolonged trauma exposure. PLoS ONE 7(11): e48298. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048298
Craig A. D. B. (2009) How do you feel – now? The anterior insula and human awareness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 10(1): 59–70. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Damasio A. (1999) The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. Harcourt Brace & Co, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
David N., Newen A. & Vogeley K. (2008) The “sense of agency” and its underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms. Consciousness and Cognition 17(2): 523–534. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Degenaar J. (2012) Perceptual engagement: A sensorimotor approach to phenomenal experience. PhD thesis, University of Groningen, The Netherlands. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Degenaar J. (2013) Through the inverting glass: First-person observations on spatial vision and imagery. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 13(2): 373–393. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Depraz N. & Desmidt T. (2018) Cardiophenomenology: A refinement of neurophenomenology. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences: First online. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Depraz N., Varela F. & Vermersch P. (eds.) (2003) On becoming aware: A pragmatics of experiencing. John Benjamins, Amsterdam. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ehlers A. & Clark D. (2000) A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy 38: 319–345. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ehlers A., Hackmann A. & Michael T. (2004) Intrusive re-experiencing in post-traumatic stress disorder: Phenomenology, theory, and therapy. Memory 12(4): 403–415. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Fanselow M. S. & Pennington Z. T. (2018) A return to the psychiatric dark ages with a two-system framework for fear. Behaviour Research and Therapy 100: 24–29. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Felman S. & Laub D. (1992) Testimony: Crises of witnessing in literature, psychoanalysis, and history. Taylor & Frances/Routledge, Florence KY. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Felmingham K., Williams L. M., Kemp A. H., Liddell B., Falconer E., Peduto A. & Bryant R. (2010) Neural responses to masked fear faces: Sex differences and trauma exposure in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 119(1): 241–247. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Fisler M. S., Federspiel A., Horn H., Dierks T., Schmitt W., Wiest R., de Quervain D. J.-F., Soravia L. M. (2013) Spider phobia is associated with decreased left amygdala volume: A cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry 13: 70. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471–244X-13–70
Fonzo G. A., Simmons A. N., Thorp S. R., Norman S. B., Paulus M. P. & Stein M. B. (2010) Exaggerated and disconnected insular-amygdalar blood oxygenation level-dependent response to threat-related emotional faces in women with intimate-partner violence posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry 68(5): 433–441. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gallagher S. (2000) Philosophical conceptions of the self: Implications for cognitive science. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4(1): 14–21 https://cepa.info/4360
Gallagher S. (2007) The natural philosophy of agency. Philosophy Compass 2(2): 347–357 ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gallese V., Fadiga L., Fogassi L. & Rizzolatti G. (1996) Action recognition in the premotor cortex. Brain 119(2): 593–609. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/119.2.593
Garrett A. S., Carrion V., Kletter H., Karchemskiy A., Weems C. F. & Reiss A. (2012) Brain activation to facial expressions in youth with PTSD symptoms. Depression and Anxiety 29(5): 449–459. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ghaffarzadegan N. & Larson R. C. (2015) Posttraumatic stress disorder: Five vicious cycles that inhibit effective treatment. U. S. Army Medical Department Journal October-December 2015: 8–13. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Grivaz P., Blanke O. & Serino A. (2017) Common and distinct brain regions processing multisensory bodily signals for peripersonal space and body ownership. NeuroImage 147: 602–618. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Guterstam A., Björnsdotter M., Gentile G. & Ehrsson H. H. (2015) Posterior cingulate cortex integrates the senses of self-location and body ownership. Current Biology 25(11): 1416–1425. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.03.059
Haggard P. (2017) Sense of agency in the human brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 18(4): 196–207. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hall P. & Steinberg M. (1994) Systematic assessment of dissociative symptoms and disorders using the SCID-D in a clinical outpatient setting: Three cases. Dissociation: Progress in the Dissociative Disorders 7(2): 112–116. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hoge C. W., Grossman S. H., Auchterlonie J. L., Riviere L. A., Milliken C. S. & Wilk J. E. (2014) PTSD treatment for soldiers after combat deployment: Low utilization of mental health care and reasons for dropout. Psychiatric Services 65(8): 997–1004. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hoskins M., Pearce J., Bethell A., Dankova L., Barbui C., Tol W. A., Van Ommeren M., De Jong J., Seedat S., Chen H. & Bisson J. I. (2015) Pharmacotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: Systematic review and meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry 206(2): 93–100. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Husserl E. (1970) The crisis of European sciences and transcendental phenomenology. Translated by D. Carr. Northwestern University Press, Evanston. German original published in 1936. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Jennings J. L. (1986) Husserl revisited. American Psychologist 41(11): 1231–1240. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Jovanovic T. & Norrholm S. D. (2011) Neural mechanisms of impaired fear inhibition in posttraumatic stress disorder. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 5: 44. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2011.00044
Kalckert A. & Ehrsson H. (2012) Moving a rubber hand that feels like your own: A dissociation of ownership and agency. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6: 40. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2012.00040
Kelmendi B., Adams T. G., Yarnell S., Southwick S., Abdallah C. G. & Krystal J. H. (2016) PTSD: From neurobiology to pharmacological treatments. European Journal of Psychotraumatology 7(1): 31858. https://doi.org/10.3402/ejpt.v7.31858
Kim M. J., Gee D. G., Loucks R. A., Davis F. C. & Whalen P. J. (2011) Anxiety dissociates dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity with the amygdala at rest. Cerebral Cortex 21(7): 1667–1673. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhq237
Kroes M. C. W., Whalley M. G., Rugg M. D. & Brewin C. R. (2011) Association between flashbacks and structural brain abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder. European Psychiatry: The Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists 26(8): 525–531. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Kühn S. & Gallinat J. (2013) Gray matter correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder: A quantitative meta-analysis. Biological Psychiatry 73(1): 70–74. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lahad M. & Doron M. (2007) SEE FAR CBT – Beyond cognitive behavior therapy. Second edition. CSPC, Kiryat Shmona. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lahad M. & Doron M. (2010) Protocol for treatment of post traumatic stress disorder: See far CBT model: Beyond cognitive behavior therapy. IOS Press, Amsterdam. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lahad M., Baruch Y., Shacham Y., Niv S., Rogel R., Nacasch N., Rachamim L. & Leykin D. (2011) Cultural sensitivity in psychosocial interventions following a disaster: A tri-national collaboration in Sri Lanka. In: Kaufman R., Edwards R. L., Mirsky J. & Avgar A. (eds.) Crisis as an opportunity: Organizational and professional responses to disaster. University Press of America, Lanham: 129–154. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lahad M., Farhi M., Leykin D. & Kaplansky N. (2010) Preliminary study of a new integrative approach in treating post-traumatic stress disorder: SEE FAR CBT. The Arts in Psychotherapy 37(5): 391–399. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Landy R. (1993) Persona and performance. Jessica Kingsley, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Langmuir J. I., Kirsh S. G. & Classen C. C. (2012) A pilot study of body-oriented group psychotherapy: Adapting sensorimotor psychotherapy for the group treatment of trauma. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 4(2): 214–220. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Laub D. (1995) Truth and testimony: The process and the struggle. In: Caruth C. (ed.) Trauma: Explorations in memory. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore MD: 61–45. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
LeDoux J. E. & Hofmann S. G. (2018) The subjective experience of emotion: A fearful view. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 19: 67–72. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
LeDoux J. E. (1992) Brain mechanisms of emotion and emotional learning. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 2(2): 191–197. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Leijssen M. (2006) Validation of the body in psychotherapy. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 46(2): 126–146. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lindquist K. A., Wager T. D., Kober H., Bliss-Moreau E. & Barrett L. F. (2012) The brain basis of emotion: A meta-analytic review. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35(3): 121–143. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lonsdorf T. B., Menz M. M., Andreatta M., Fullana M. A., Golkar A., Haaker J., Heitland I., Hermann A., Kuhn M., Kruse O., Drexler S. M., Meulders A., Nees F., Pittig A., Richter J., Römer S., Shiban Y., Schmitz A., Straube B., Vervliet B., Wendt J., Baas J. M. P. & Merz C. J. (2017) Don’t fear “fear conditioning”: Methodological considerations for the design and analysis of studies on human fear acquisition, extinction, and return of fear. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 77: 247–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.02.026
Lutz A. & Thompson E. (2003) Neurophenomenology. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10(9–10): 31–52 https://cepa.info/2363
Lutz A. (2007) Neurophenomenology and the study of self-consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 16: 765–767 https://cepa.info/2371
McLane J. (1996) The voice on the skin: Self-mutilation and Merleau‐Ponty’s theory of language. Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy 11(4): 107–118. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
McNally R. J. (2003) Psychological mechanisms in acute response to trauma. Society of Biological Psychiatry 53(9): 779–88. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Merleau-Ponty M. (2002) Phenomenology of perception. Translated by C. Smith. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London. French original published in 1945 ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Morey R. A., Gold A. L., LaBar K. S., Beall S. K., Brown V. M., Haswell C. C., Nasser J. D., Wagner H. R. & McCarthy G. (2012) Amygdala volume changes in posttraumatic stress disorder in a large case-controlled veterans group. Archives of General Psychiatry 69(11): 1169–1178. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2012.50
Murphy R. T., Rosen C., Thompson K., Murray M. & Rainey Q. (2004) A readiness to change approach to preventing PTSD treatment failure. In: Taylor S. (ed.) Advances in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: Cognitive-behavioral perspectives. Springer, New York: 57–91. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nagel T. (1974) What is it like to be a bat? Philosophical Review 83: 435–456 https://cepa.info/2399
Nagel T. (1986) The view from nowhere. Oxford University, Oxford. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Najavits L. M. (2015) The problem of dropout from “gold standard” PTSD therapies. F1000Prime Reports 7(43): 1–8. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nardo D., Högberg G., Lanius R. A., Jacobsson H., Jonsson C., Hällström T. & Pagani M. (2013) Gray matter volume alterations related to trait dissociation in PTSD and traumatized controls. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 128(3): 222–233. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nock M. K. & Prinstein M. J. (2004) A functional approach to the assessment of self-mutilative behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 75(2): 885–890. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nock M. K. (2008) Actions speak louder than words: An elaborated theoretical model of the social functions of self-injury and other harmful behaviors. Applied and Preventive Psychology 12(4): 159–168. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nock M. K. (2010) Self-injury. The Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 6: 339–369. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Noë A. (2004) Action in perception. MIT Press, Cambridge. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Overgaard M. (2008) Introspection. Scholarpedia 3(5): 4953. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
O’Regan K. J. & Noë A. (2001) What it is like to see: A sensorimotor theory of perceptual experience. Synthese 129(1): 79–103 https://cepa.info/2285
Patel R., Spreng R. N., Shin L. M. & Girard T. A. (2012) Neurocircuitry models of posttraumatic stress disorder and beyond: A meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 36(9): 2130–2142. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Petitmengin C. (2006) Describing one’s subjective experience in the second person: An interview method for the science of consciousness. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 5: 229–269 https://cepa.info/2376
Petitmengin C., Navarro V. & Le Van Quyen M. (2007) Anticipating seizure: Pre-reflective experience at the center of neuro-phenomenology. Consciousness and Cognition 16: 746–764 https://cepa.info/4452
Porter S. & Peace K. A. (2007) The Scars of Memory. Psychological Science 18(5): 435–41. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Postman N. (1993) Technopoly. Vintage Books, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rabellino D., Burin D., Harricharan S., Lloyd C., Frewen P. A., McKinnon M. C. & Lanius R. A. (2018) Altered sense of body ownership and agency in posttraumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype: A rubber hand illusion study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12: 163. https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2018.00163
Ramage A. E., Laird A. R., Eickhoff S. B., Acheson A., Peterson A. L., Williamson D. E., Telch M. J. & Fox P. T. (2013) A coordinate-based meta-analytic model of trauma processing in posttraumatic stress disorder. Human Brain Mapping 34(12): 3392–3399. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.22155
Richardson L. (2013) Bodily sensation and tactile perception. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 86(1): 134–154. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rieber R. W. & Robinson D. K. (eds.) (2001) Wilhelm Wundt in history: The making of a scientific psychology. Springer, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rizzolatti G., Fadiga L., Gallese V. & Fogassi L. (1996) Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions. Cognitive Brain Research 3(2): 131–141. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rosso I. M., Makris N., Britton J. C., Price L. M., Gold A. L., Zai D., Bruyere J., Deckersbach T., Killgore W. D. & Rauch S. L. (2010) Anxiety sensitivity correlates with two indices of right anterior insula structure in specific animal phobia. Depression and Anxiety 27(12): 1104–1110. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rougemont-Bücking A., Linnman C., Zeffiro T. A., Zeidan M. A., Lebron-Milad K., Rodriguez-Romaguera J., Rauch S. L., Pitman R. K. & Milad M. R. (2011) Altered processing of contextual information during fear extinction in PTSD: An fMRI study. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 17(4): 227–236. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Sartory G., Cwik J., Knuppertz H., Schürholt B., Lebens M., Seitz R. J. & Schulze R. (2013) In search of the trauma memory: A meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PLoS ONE 8(3): e58150. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058150
Sartre J.-P. (1956) Being and nothingness. Translated by H. Barnes. Philosophical Library, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Scaer R. C. (2007) The body bears the burden: Trauma, dissociation, and disease. Haworth Medical Press, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schottenbauer M. A., Glass C. R., Arnkoff D. B., Tendick V. & Gray S. H. (2008) Nonresponse and dropout rates in outcome studies on PTSD: Review and methodological considerations. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes 71(2): 134–168. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Searle J. R. (1992) The rediscovery of the mind. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Searle J. R. (1997) The mystery of consciousness. New York Review of Books, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Shankman S. A., Gorka S. M., Nelson B. D., Fitzgerald D. A., Phan K. L. & O’Daly O. (2014) Anterior insula responds to temporally unpredictable aversiveness: An fMRI study. Neuroreport 25(8): 596–600. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Shin L. M. & Liberzon I. (2010) The neurocircuitry of fear, stress, and anxiety disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 35(1): 169–191. https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2009.83
Somer E. & Ataria Y. (2015) Adverse outcome of continuous traumatic stress: The tale of traumatized women in Sderot. International Journal of Stress Management 22(3): 287–305. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Steenkamp M. M., Litz B. T., Hoge C. W. & Marmar C. R. (2015) Psychotherapy for military-related PTSD: A review of randomized clinical trials. Jama 314(5): 489–500. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Stein M. B., Simmons A. N., Feinstein J. S. & Paulus M. P. (2007) Increased amygdala and insula activation during emotion processing in anxiety-prone subjects. The American Journal of Psychiatry 164(2): 318–327. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Stratton G. M. (1896) Some preliminary experiments on vision without inversion of the retinal image. Psychological Review 3(6): 611–617. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Taugher R. J., Lu Y., Wang Y., Kreple C. J., Ghobbeh A., Fan R., Sowers L. P. & Wemmie J. A. (2014) The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is critical for anxiety-related behavior evoked by CO2 and acidosis. The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34(31): 10247–10255. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1680–14.2014
Thompson E., Lutz A. & Cosmelli D. (2005) Neurophenomenology: An introduction for neurophilosophers. In: Brook A. & Akins K. (eds.) Cognition and the brain: The philosophy and neuroscience movement. Cambridge University Press, New York: 40–97 https://cepa.info/2374
Tovote P., Fadok J. P. & Lüthi A. (2015) Neuronal circuits for fear and anxiety. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience 16(6): 317–331. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Tsakiris M., Hesse M. D., Boy C., Haggard P. & Fink G. R. (2006) Neural signatures of body ownership: A sensory network for bodily self-consciousness. Cerebral Cortex 17(10): 2235–2244. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
van der Kolk B. A. & Fisler R. (1995) Dissociation and the fragmentary nature of traumatic memories: Overview and exploratory study. Journal of Traumatic Stress 8: 505–525. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
van der Kolk B. A. & van der Hart O. (1991) The intrusive past: The flexibility of memory and the engraving of trauma. American Imago 48: 425–454. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
van der Kolk B. A. (2014) The body keeps the score: Brain, mind, and body in the healing of trauma. Viking, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
van Rooij S. J., Kennis M., Vink M. & Geuze E. (2016) Predicting treatment outcome in PTSD: A longitudinal functional MRI study on trauma-unrelated emotional processing. Neuropsychopharmacology 41(4): 1156–1165. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Varela F. (1996) Neurophenomenology: A methodological remedy for the hard problem. Journal of Consciousness Studies 3(4): 330–349 https://cepa.info/1893
Vermersch P. (2009) Describing the practice of introspection. Journal of Consciousness Studies 16(10–12): 20–57 https://cepa.info/2416
Weber M., Killgore W. D. S., Rosso I. M., Britton J. C., Schwab Z. J., Weiner M. R., Simon N. M., Pollack M. H. & Rauch S. L. (2013) Voxel-based morphometric gray matter correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 27(4): 413–419. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Woon F. L., Sood S. & Hedges D. W. (2010) Hippocampal volume deficits associated with exposure to psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in adults: A meta-analysis. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 34(7): 1181–1188. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Yates T. M. (2009) Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to nonsuicidal self-injury. In: Nock M. K. (ed.) Understanding nonsuicidal self-injury: Origins, assessment, and treatment. APA, Washington DC: 117–137. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Zantvoord J. B., Diehle J. & Lindauer R. J. L. (2013) Using neurobiological measures to predict and assess treatment outcome of psychotherapy in posttraumatic stress disorder: Systematic review. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 82(3): 142–151. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Zhang J., Tan Q., Yin H., Zhang X., Huan Y., Tang L., Wang H., Xu J. & Li L. (2011) Decreased gray matter volume in the left hippocampus and bilateral calcarine cortex in coal mine flood disaster survivors with recent onset PTSD. Psychiatry Research 192(2): 84–90. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar

Comments: 0

To stay informed about comments to this publication and post comments yourself, please log in first.