Volume 7 · Number 1 · Pages 1–9 & 37–47
From Objects to Processes: A Proposal to Rewrite Radical Constructivism

Siegfried J. Schmidt

Log in to download the full text for free

> Citation > Similar > References > Add Comment


Context: Philosophical debates in recent decades have developed new ways of dealing with old philosophical problems such as reality, truth, knowledge, language, communication, and action. These new approaches deserve serious consideration because they can improve the discourse of radical constructivism. Problem: This paper discusses the following problem: How can we overcome dualistic and ontological approaches to basic philosophical problems – problems that are relevant to all scientific domains? Method: The method applied here can be roughly described as a transition from entities/substantives/identities to actions and processes, the actions and processes from which so-called entities result. Action-orientation – or an actor-based process – is necessarily combined with sense-orientation as provided by culture and society. Results: The paper demonstrates how the problems mentioned above can be reformulated in a non-dualistic and non-ontological way. Implications: Opening up constructivist thinking to insights provided by neighbouring philosophical approaches facilitates interdisciplinary cooperation and helps overcome dualistic remnants – as well as the cognitive one-sidedness of traditional constructivism.

Key words: process-orientation, observer, communication, language, understanding, reality, knowledge, action, truth


Schmidt S. J. (2011) From objects to processes: A proposal to rewrite radical constructivism. Constructivist Foundations 7(1): 1–9 & 37–47. http://constructivist.info/7/1/001

Export article citation data: Plain Text · BibTex · EndNote · Reference Manager (RIS)

Similar articles

Bettoni M. C. (2007) The Yerkish Language: From Operational Methodology to Chimpanzee Communication
Kügler P. (2013) Non-dualism versus Conceptual Relativism
Hoffjann O. (2013) Public Relations: Between Omnipotence and Impotence
Rusch G. (2007) Understanding. The Mutual Regulation of Cognition and Culture
Gasparyan D. (2015) What Can the Global Observer Know?


Atlan H. & Bousquet B. (1994) Questions de vie. Le Seuil, Paris. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Baecker D. (2005) Kommunikation als Selektion. In: Baecker D. (ed.) Schlüsselwerke der Systemtheorie. Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden: 119–128. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bartesaghi M. & Castor T. R. (2008) Social construction in communication: Revisiting the conversation. Communication Yearbook 32: 5–30. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bateson G. (1972) Steps to an ecology of mind. Ballantine Books, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bateson G. (1980) Mind and nature: A necessary unity. Fontana/Collins, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bentele G. (2005) Wie wirklich ist die Medienwirklichkeit? Anmerkungen zu Konstruktivismus und Realismus in der Kommunikationswissenschaft [How real is media reality? Annotations to constructivism and realism in communication science]. LIT Verlag, Münster. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Berlo D. K. (1960) The process of communication. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bormann E. G. (1990) Small group communication: Theory and practice. Third Edition. Harper & Row, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bourdieu P. (1972) Esquisse d’une théorie de la pratique, précédé de trois études d’ethnologie kabyle. Droz, Geneva. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Brandom R. B. (2000) Articulating reasons: An introduction to inferentialism. Harvard University Press, Cambridge. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Buttny R. & Ellis D. G. (2007) Accounts of violence from Arabs and Israelis on ABC-TV’s panel discussion from Jerusalem. Discourse & Society 18: 139–161. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Cameron D. (1992) Feminism and linguistic theory. Second edition. Palgrave McMillan, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ceccato S. (1961) The machine which observes and describes. University of Milan (Mimeo), Milan. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ciompi L. (1997) Die emotionalen Grundlagen des Denkens: Entwurf einer fraktalen Affektlogik. Vandenhoek & Ruprecht, Göttingen. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Devitt M. (1991) Realism and truth. Blackwell, Cambridge. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Donk A. (2009) Kommunikation über Vergangenheit – Soziales Gedächtnis in kommunikationswissenschaftlicher Perspektive [Communication about history – Social memory from a communication science perspective]. In: Merten K. (ed.) Konstruktion von Kommunikation in der Mediengesellschaft [The construction of communication in media society]. VS Verlag, Wiesbaden: 13–29. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Donsbach W. (2006) The identity of communication research. Journal of Communication 56: 437–448. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Feilke H. (1994) Common sense-Kompetenz. Überlegungen zu einer Theorie “sympathischen” und “natürlichen” Meinens und Verstehens. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Feilke H. (1996) Sprache als soziale Gestalt. Ausdruck, Prägung und die Ordnung der sprachlichen Typik. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Feyerabend P. (1975) Against Method. Verso, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Fichte J. G. (1982) Foundations of the entire science of knowledge. In: Fichte J. G., Science of knowledge (Wissenschaftslehre). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK. German original: Fichte J. G. (1794/95) Grundlage der gesamten Wissenschaftslehre. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Fichte J. G. (1988) Concerning the concept of the wissenschaftslehre or, of so-called “philosophy.” In: Fichte J. G., Early Philosophical Writings. Cornell University Press, Ithaca NY: 94–135. German original: Fichte J. G. (1794) Über den Begriff der Wissenschaftslehre oder der sogenannten Philosophie. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Fleck L. (1929) Zur Krise der Wirklichkeiten. Die Naturwissenschaften 17 (23): 425–439. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Foerster H. von (1981) Observing systems. Intersystems Publications, Seaside CA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Foerster H. von (1993) Wissen und Gewissen. Versuch einer Brücke. (Edited by S. J. Schmidt). Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Foucault M. (1966) Les mots et les choses. Gallimard, Paris. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Foucault M. (1969) The archaeology of knowledge. Routledge, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Foucault M. (1975) Surveiller et punir. Gallimard, Paris. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Frerichs S. (2000) Bausteine einer systemischen Nachrichtentheorie. Konstruktives Chaos und chaotische Konstruktionen [Foundations of a systemic theory of news. Constructive chaos and chaotic constructions]. Westdeutscher Verlag, Wiesbaden. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Furth H. G. (1998) Not radical enough: A critique of von Glasersfeld’s radical epistemology. Ethik und Sozialwissenschaften 9 (4): 522–524. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gadamer H.-G. (1982) Truth and method. Continuum, London. German original: Gadamer H.-G. (1960) Wahrheit und Methode. Tübingen, Mohr. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gash H. & Riegler A. (2011) (eds.) Commemorative Issue for Ernst von Glasersfeld. Constructivist Foundations 6(2) Available at: http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/journal/6/2/ ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Glanville R. (1990) Sed quis custodient ipsos custodes. In: Heylighen F., Rosseel. E. & Demeyere F. (eds) Self-steering and cognition in complex systems. Gordon and Breach, London: 107–112. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Glanville R. (1996) Communication without coding: Cybernetics, meaning and language (How language, becoming a system, betrays itself). Modern Language Notes 111(3): 441–462. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Glasersfeld E. von & Ackermann E. (2011) Reflections on the concept of experience and the role of consciousness: Unfinished fragments. Constructivist Foundations 6(2): 193–203. Available at: http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/journal/6/2/193.glasersfeld ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Glasersfeld E. von (1974) Piaget and the radical constructivist epistemology. In: Smock C. D. & Glasersfeld E. von (eds.) Epistemology and education. Follow Through Publications, Athens: 1–24. http://www.vonglasersfeld.com/034
Glasersfeld E. von (1974) “Because” and the concepts of causation. Semiotica 12(2): 129–144. http://www.vonglasersfeld.com/031
Glasersfeld E. von (1980) Viability and the concept of selection. American Psychologist 35(11): 970–974. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Glasersfeld E. von (1984) An introduction to radical constructivism. In: Watzlawick P. (ed.) The invented reality. W. W. Norton, New York: 17–40. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Glasersfeld E. von (1988) The reluctance to change a way of thinking. Irish Journal of Psychology 9: 83–90. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Glasersfeld E. von (1995) Radical constructivism: A way of knowing and learning. Falmer Press, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Glasersfeld E. von (1996) Aspectos del constructivismo radical [Aspects of radical constructivism] In: Pakman M. (ed.) Construcciones de la experiencia humana. Gedisa Editorial, Barcelona: 23–49. http://www.vonglasersfeld.com/191
Goodman N. (1978) Ways of worldmaking. Hackett, Indianapolis. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gould S. J. (1989) Wonderful life: the Burgess Shale and nature of history. W. W. Norton, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gould S. J. (2002) The structure of evolutionary theory. Harvard University Press, Harvard. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Grant C. B. (2007) Uncertainty and communication. New theoretical investigations. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gratton C. (2010) Infinite regress arguments. Springer, Dordrecht. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Habermas J. (1984) Reason and the rationalization of society. Volume 1 of The theory of communicative action. English translation by Thomas McCarthy. Beacon Press, Boston. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Habermas J. (2005) Concluding comments on empirical approaches to deliberative politics. Acta Politica 40(3): 384–393. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Habermas J. (2006) Political communication in media society: Does democracy still enjoy an epistemic dimension? The impact of normative theory on empirical research. Communication Theory 16: 411–426. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hainz M. A. (2007) “Kein Schrei kommt aus seiner Kehle, aber ein mächtiger, schwarzer Strahl schießt aus seinem Hals.” Zu Binjamin Wilkomirski. In: Neuhaus S. & Holzner J. (eds.) Literatur als Skandal. Fälle, Funktionen, Folgen. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen: 613–623. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hamlyn D. W. (1978) Experience and the growth of understanding. Routledge & Kegan Paul: London & Boston. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hartmann D. & Janich P. (eds.) (1996) Die kulturalistische Wende. Zur Orientierung des philosophischen Selbstverständnisses. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hegel G. W. F. (1986) Phänomenologie des Geistes. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt. Originally published in 1807. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Heidegger M. (1966) Discourse on thinking. Harper and Row, New York. German original published as Heidegger M. (1959) Gelassenheit. Gunther Neske, Pfullingen. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Heidegger M. (1995) The fundamental concepts of metaphysics: World, finitude, solitude. Indiana University Press, Bloomington IN. German original: Heidegger M. (1983) Gesamtausgabe Band 29/30: Die Grundbegriffe der Metaphysik. Welt – Endlichkeit – Einsamkeit. Klostermann, Frankfurt. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Heidegger M. (2000) Contributions to philosophy: From enowning. Indiana University Press, Bloomington. German original: Heidegger M. (1989) Gesamtausgabe Band 65: Beiträge zur Philosophie (vom Ereignis). Klostermann, Frankfurt. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Janich P. (1995) Die methodische Konstruktion der Wirklichkeit durch die Wissenschaften. In: Lenk H. & Poser H. (eds.) Neue Realitäten – Herausforderungen der Philosophie (XVI. Deutscher Kongreß für Philosophie). Akademie Verlag, Berlin: 460–475. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Janich P. (2000) Verlust der Realität. Ein abendländisches Gedanken-Los? In: Zurstiege G. (ed.) Festschrift für die Wirklichkeit. Westdeutscher Verlag, Wiesbaden: 13–26. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Janich P. (2001) Logisch-pragmatische Propädeutik. Ein Grundkurs im philosophischen Reflektieren. Velbrück Wissenschaft, Weilerswist. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Janich P. (2006) Kultur und Methode. Philosophie einer wissenschaftlich geprägten Welt. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Janich P. (2009) Kein neues Menschenbild. Zur Sprache der Hirnforschung. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Joas H. (1992) Pragmatismus und Gesellschaftstheorie. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Jünger S. (2002) Kognition, Kommunikation, Kultur. Aspekte integrativer Theoriearbeit. DVA, Wiesbaden. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Kirschner P. A., Sweller J. & Clark R. E. (2006) Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: an analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist 4(2): 75–86. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Kitchener R. J. (1987) Is genetic epistemology possible? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38(3): 283–299. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Krippendorff K. (1989) On the ethics of constructing communication. In: Dervin B., Grossberg l., O’Keefe B. J. & Wartella E. (eds.) Rethinking communication. Vol I: Paradigm Issues. Sage, Newbury Park: 66–96. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Krippendorff K. (1996) A second order cybernetics of otherness. Systems Research 13: 311–328. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Krippendorff K. (2005) The social construction of public opinion. In: Wienand E., Westerbarkey J. & Scholl A. (eds.) Kommunikation über Kommunikation. Theorien, Methoden und Praxis [Communication about communication: Theories, methods, and practice]. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden: 129–149. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Larochelle M. & Désautels J. (2011) The science wars go local: The reception of radical constructivism in Quebec. Constructivist Foundations 6(2): 248–253. Available at: http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/journal/6/2/248.larochelle.pdf ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Laudan L. (1981) A confutation of convergent realism. Philosophy of Science 1: 19–49. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Laudan L. (1990) Science and relativism: Some key controversies in the philosophy of science. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Laudan L. (1996) Beyond positivism and relativism. Westview Press, Boulder CO. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lenk H. (1995) Interpretation und Realität. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Luhmann N. (1985) Soziale Systeme. Grundriß einer allgemeinen Theorie. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Luhmann N. (1990) Die Wissenschaft der Gesellschaft. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. & Varela F. J. (1980) Autopoiesis and cognition: The realization of the living. Reidel, Boston. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. (1970) Biology of cognition. BCL Report 9.0. Biological Computer Laboratory, University of Illinois. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. (1988) Reality: The search for objectivity or the quest for a compelling argument. Irish Journal of Psychology 9(1): 25–82. http://www.enolagaia.com/M88Reality.html
Maturana H. R. (1991) Wissenschaft und Alltag: Die Ontologie wissenschaftlicher Erklärungen. In: Watzlawick P. & Krieg P. (eds.) Das Auge des Betrachters. Beiträge zum Konstruktivismus. Piper, Munich: 167–208. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
McDowell J. (1994) Mind and world. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Merten K. (2005) Reaktivität und Reflexivität: Sozialwissenschaftliche Datenerhebung als interferierende Kommunikationsprozesse [Reactivity and reflexivity: Social scientific data collection as interfering communication processes]. In: Wienand E., Westerbarkey J. & Scholl A. (eds.) Kommunikation über Kommunikation. Theorien, Methoden und Praxis [Communication about communication: Theories, methodology, and practice]. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden: 102–128. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Merten K., Schmidt S. J. & Weischenberg S. (eds.) (1994) Die Wirklichkeit der Medien [The reality of media]. Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Mischel T. (1971) Cognitive development and epistemology. Academic Press, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Misztal B. (2005) Memory and democracy. American Behavioral Scientist 48: 1320–1338. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Mitterer J. (1992) Das Jenseits der Philosophie. Wider das dualistische Erkenntnisprinzip [The beyond of philosophy: Against the dualistic principle of cognition]. Passagen, Vienna. Republished in 2011 with a new afterword by Velbrück Wissenschaft, Weilerswist. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Mitterer J. (2001) Die Flucht aus der Beliebigkeit [The escape from arbitrariness]. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main. Republished in 2011 with a new foreword by Velbrück Wissenschaft, Weilerswist. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Müller K. H. (2008) The new science of cybernetics. Volume I: Methodology. Edition echoraum, Vienna. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Müller K. H. (2011) The new science of cybernetics. Volume II: Theory. Edition echoraum, Vienna. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nöth W. (2000) Selbstreferenz in systemtheoretischer und semiotischer Sicht. In: Barsch A., Rusch G., Viehoff R. & Block F. W. (eds.) Festsite Siegfried J. Schmidt. http://sjschmidt.net/konzepte/texte/noeth.htm
Nöth W. (2007) Representations of imaginary, nonexistent, or nonfigurative objects. In Proni G. et al. (eds.) Peirce and image 2. Centro Internazionale di Semiotica e di Linguistica (= Documenti di lavoro e pre-pubblicazioni F 366–68), Urbino: 39–56. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nöth W. (2009) On the instrumentality and semiotic agency of signs, tools, and intelligent machines. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 16 (3–4): 11–36. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nöth W. (2011) Representation and reference according to Peirce. International Journal of Signs and Semiotic Systems 1(2): 28–39. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nöth W. (2012) From representation to thirdness. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society. In press. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Pearce W. B. (2007) Making social worlds: A communication perspective. Blackwell, Malden MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Peirce C. S. (1931–1958) Collected papers. Volumes 1–6 edited by C. Hartshorne & P. Weiss. Volumes 7–8 edited by A. W. Burks. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA. Quoted as CP. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Putnam H. (1994) Sense, nonsense, and the senses: An inquiry into the powers of the human mind. The Journal of Philosophy XCL(9): 445–517. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ransdell J. (1977) Some leading ideas of Peirce’s semiotic. Semiotica 19: 157–178. http://members.door.net/arisbe/menu/library/­aboutcsp/ransdell/leading.htm.
Rescher N. (2010) Infinite regress. The theory and history of varieties of change. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Riegler A. & Weber S. (eds.) (2008) Special Issue “The non-dualizing philosophy of Josef Mitterer.” Constructivist Foundations 3(3) http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/journal/3/3
Riegler A. (2007) Is Glasersfeld’s constructivism a dangerous intellectual tendency? In: Glanville R. & Riegler A. (eds.) The importance of being Ernst. Echoraum, Vienna: 263–275. Available at: http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/riegler/46 ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rorty R. (1979) Philosophy and the mirror of nature. Princeton University Press, Princeton. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rorty R. (1989) Contingency, irony, and solidarity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rorty R. (1999) Philosophy and social hope. Penguin, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rusch G. (1987) Erkenntnis, Wissenschaft, Geschichte. Von einem konstruktivistischen Standpunkt. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ryle G. (1949) Concept of mind. Hutchinson & Company, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Sackman S. A. (1991) Cultural knowledge in organizations: Exploring the collective mind. Sage, Newbury Park. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Sanders R. E., Fitch K. & Pomerantz A. (2000) Core research traditions within language and social interaction. In: Gudykunst W. (ed.) Communication yearbook 24. Sage, Thousand Oaks CA: 385–408. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Saussure F. de (1959) Course in General Linguistics. Translated by W. Baskin. Fontana/Collins, Glasgow. French original: Saussure F. de (1916) Cours de linguistique générale. Editions Payot, Paris. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Saussure F. de (2006) Writings in general linguistics. Oxford University Press, New York. French original: Saussure F. de (2002) Ecrits de linguistique générale. Gallimard, Paris. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schegloff E. A. (2007) Sequence organization in interaction: A primer in conversation analysis. Cambridge University Press, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schlosser G. (1993) Einheit der Welt und Einheitswissenschaft. Grundlegung einer Allgemeinen Systemtheorie. Vieweg, Braunschweig. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schmidt S. J. (1973) Texttheorie. Probleme einer Linguistik der sprachlichen Kommunikation. Fink, Munich. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schmidt S. J. (1994) Kognitive Autonomie und soziale Orientierung. Konstruktivistische Bemerkungen zum Zusammenhang von Kognition, Kommunikation, Medien und Kultur. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schmidt S. J. (1998) Die Zähmung des Blicks. Konstruktivismus – Empirie – Wissenschaft [Taming of the view. Constructivism – empirical research – science]. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schmidt S. J. (2001) Media societies: Fiction machines. In: Grant C. B. & McLaughlin D. (eds.) Critical studies. Language – meaning – social construction. Interdisciplinary studies. Rodopi, Amsterdam: 11–25. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schmidt S. J. (2001) Operative fictions. The fabric of societies In: Schram D. & Steen G. (eds.) The psychology and sociology of literature. In honor of Elrud Ibsch. Rodopi, Amsterdam: 443–457. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schmidt S. J. (2007) Histories & discourses. Rewriting constructivism. Imprint Academic, Exeter. German original: Schmidt S. J. (2003) Geschichten & Diskurse. Abschied vom Konstruktivismus. Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schmidt S. J. (2010) Die Endgültigkeit der Vorläufigkeit. Prozessualität als Argumentationsstrategie [The definitiveness of tentativeness. Processuality as a strategy of argumentation]. Velbrück, Weilerswist. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schmidt S. J. (2010) Radical constructivism: A tool, not a super theory! Constructivist Foundations 6(1): 6–11. http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/journal/6/1/006.schmidt
Schmidt S. J. (ed) (1991) Gedächtnis. Probleme und Perspektiven der interdisziplinären Gedächtnisforschung. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Scholl A. (2008) Non-dualizing philosophy and empirical research. Constructivist Foundations 3(3): 172–180. http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/journal/3/3/172.scholl
Scholl A. (2010) Radical constructivism in communication science. Constructivist Foundations 6(1): 51–57. http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/journal/6/1/051.scholl
Scholl A. (2011) Konstruktivismus und Methoden in der empirischen Sozialforschung [On the relationship of constructivism and methodology in empirical social research]. Medien und Kommunikationswissenschaft 59(2): 161–179. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schrott R. & Jacobs A. (2011) Gehirn und Gedicht. Wie wir unsere Wirklichkeiten konstruieren. Hanser, Munich. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schulz W. (1976) Die Konstruktion von Realität in den Nachrichtenmedien. Alber: Freiburg. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Sebald W. G. (1999) Luftkrieg und Literatur. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina (2005) A Failure of Initiative: Final Report. Congressional Reports: H. Rpt. 109–377. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Shannon C. & Weaver W. (1948) Mathematical model of communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Shotter J. (1999) Problems with “The way of theory.” In: Maiers B., Bayer B. D., Esgalhado R., Jorna R. & Schraube E. (eds.) Challenges to theoretical psychology. Captus University Press, Toronto: 27–34. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Shotter J. (2000) Inside dialogical realities: From an abstract-systematic to a participatory-holistic understanding of communication. Southern Communication Journal 65: 119–132. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Shotter J. (2005) Inside processes: Transitory understandings, action guiding anticipations, and withness thinking. International Journal of Action Research 1(1): 157–189. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Shotter J. (2010) Adopting a process orientation... in practice: chiasmic relations, language, and embodiment in a living world. In: Hernes T. & Matlis S. (eds.) Process, sensemaking and organizing. Oxford University Press, New York: 70–101. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Shweder R. A. (1977) Likeness and likelihood in everyday thought: Magical thinking in judgments about personality. Current Anthropology 18(4): 637–658. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Sigman S. J. (ed.) (1995) The consequentiality of communication. Erlbaum: Hillsdale NJ. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Spender J.-C. (1998) Pluralistic epistemology and the knowledge-based theory of the firm. Organization 5(2): 33–256. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Tobias S. & Duffy T. M. (2009) Constructivist Instruction: Success or Failure? Routledge, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Toulmin S. (1988) The recovery of practical philosophy. American Scholar 57(3): 337. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Uexküll J. von (1909) Umwelt und Innenwelt der Tiere. Springer, Berlin. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Wagner J. (1986) The search for signs of intelligent life in the universe. Harper & Row, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Weber S. (2002) Konstruktivismus und Non-Dualismus, Systemtheorie und Distinktionstheorie [Constructivism and non-dualism, systems theory and theory of distinction]. In: Scholl A. (ed.) Systemtheorie und Konstruktivismus in der Kommunikationswissenschaft [Systems theory and constructivism in communication science]. UVK, Konstanz: 21–36. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Weber S. (2008) The object of description is the description of the object so far: Non-dualism and Beyond. Constructivist Foundations 3(3): 140–147. http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/journal/3/3/140.weber
Weizsäcker C. F. von (1980) Der Garten des Menschlichen. Beiträge zur geschichtlichen Anthropologie. Hanser, Munich. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Welsch W. (1998) “Wirklich.” Bedeutungsvarianten – Modelle – Wirklichkeit und Virtualität. In: Krämer S. (ed.) Medien Computer Realität. Wirklichkeitsvorstellungen und neue Medien. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main: 169–212. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Wilkomirski B. (1996) Fragments. Memories of a wartime childhood. Schocken Books, New York. German original: Wilkomirski B. (1995) Bruchstücke. Aus einer Kindheit 1939–1948. Jüdischer Verlag, Frankfurt. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Wittgenstein L. (1953) Philosophical investigations. Third Edition. English translation by G. E. M. Anscome. Macmillan, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Wittgenstein L. (1969) On certainty. Blackwell, Oxford. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Wright E. L. (2005) Narrative, perception, language, and faith. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Wright E. L. (2008) Why transparency is non-ethical. In Wright E. L. (ed.) The case for qualia. MIT Press, Cambridge MA: 341–366. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Wright E. L. (2011) Avatar-philosophy (and -religion) or faitheism. Imprint Academic, Exeter. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Zelizer B. (2008) Why memory’s work on journalism does not reflect journalism’s work on memory. Memory Studies 1: 79–87. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Zelizer B. (2010) Journalism’s memory work. In: Erll A. & Nünning A. (ed.) A companion to cultural memory studies. De Gruyter, Berlin: 367–378. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Zimmerman A. (2006) Review of “Fear of Knowledge: Against Relativism and Constructivism.” Ars Disputandi Volume 7 (29 November 2006) http://www.arsdisputandi.org/publish/articles/000265/
Zimmerman D. H. (1998) Identity, context and interaction. In: Antaki C. & Widdicombe S. (eds.) Identities in talk. Sage, Thousand Oaks CA: 87–106. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar

Comments: 0

To stay informed about comments to this publication and post comments yourself, please log in first.