Volume 9 · Number 1 · Pages 57–58
Environments Are Typically Continuous and Noisy

Martin V. Butz

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Open peer commentary on the article “A Computational Constructivist Model as an Anticipatory Learning Mechanism for Coupled Agent–Environment Systems” by Filipo Studzinski Perotto. Upshot: The schema system presented in the target article suffers from problems that had been acknowledged more than ten years ago. The main point is that our world is neither deterministic nor symbolic. Sensory as well as motor noise is ubiquitous in our environment. Symbols do not exist a priori but need to be grounded within our continuous world. In conclusion, I suggest that research on schema-learning systems should tackle small but real-world, continuous, and noisy problem domains.


Butz M. V. (2013) Environments are typically continuous and noisy. Constructivist Foundations 9(1): 57–58. http://constructivist.info/9/1/057

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