Volume 9 · Number 2 · Pages 223–231
Info-computational Constructivism and Cognition

Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic

Log in to download the full text for free

> Citation > Similar > References > Add Comment


Context: At present, we lack a common understanding of both the process of cognition in living organisms and the construction of knowledge in embodied, embedded cognizing agents in general, including future artifactual cognitive agents under development, such as cognitive robots and softbots. Purpose: This paper aims to show how the info-computational approach (IC) can reinforce constructivist ideas about the nature of cognition and knowledge and, conversely, how constructivist insights (such as that the process of cognition is the process of life) can inspire new models of computing. Method: The info-computational constructive framework is presented for the modeling of cognitive processes in cognizing agents. Parallels are drawn with other constructivist approaches to cognition and knowledge generation. We describe how cognition as a process of life itself functions based on info-computation and how the process of knowledge generation proceeds through interactions with the environment and among agents. Results: Cognition and knowledge generation in a cognizing agent is understood as interaction with the world (potential information), which by processes of natural computation becomes actual information. That actual information after integration becomes knowledge for the agent. Heinz von Foerster is identified as a precursor of natural computing, in particular bio computing. Implications: IC provides a framework for unified study of cognition in living organisms (from the simplest ones, such as bacteria, to the most complex ones) as well as in artifactual cognitive systems. Constructivist content: It supports the constructivist view that knowledge is actively constructed by cognizing agents and shared in a process of social cognition. IC argues that this process can be modeled as info-computation.

Key words: Constructivism, info-computationalism, computing nature, morphological computing, self-organization, autopoiesis


Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2014) Info-computational constructivism and cognition. Constructivist Foundations 9(2): 223–231. http://constructivist.info/9/2/223

Export article citation data: Plain Text · BibTex · EndNote · Reference Manager (RIS)

Similar articles

Urrestarazu H. (2011) Autopoietic Systems: A Generalized Explanatory Approach – Part 2
Urrestarazu H. (2014) Social Autopoiesis?
Leydesdorff L. (2012) Radical Constructivism and Radical Constructedness: Luhmann’s Sociology of Semantics, Organizations, and Self-Organization
Urrestarazu H. (2012) Autopoietic Systems: A Generalized Explanatory Approach – Part 3: The Scale of Description Problem
Brier S. (2009) Cybersemiotic Pragmaticism and Constructivism


Abraham D. & Shaw R. (1999) A visual introduction to dynamical systems theory for psychology. Aerial Press, Santa Cruz. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Allen C. (2010) Animal consciousness. In: Zalta E. N. (ed.) Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consciousness-animal/
Anderson P. W. (1972) More is different. Science 177: 393–396. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Asaro P. M. (2007) Heinz von Foerster and the bio-computing movements of the 1960s. In: Müller K. H. & Müller A. (ed.) An unfinished revolution? Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory | BCL 1958–1976. Echoraum, Vienna: 253–276. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ashby W. R. (1960) Design for a brain. Second edition. Wiley, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Baeyer H. von (2013) Quantum weirdness. It’s all in your mind. Scientific American 308(6): 46–51. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Baeyer H.von (2013) Can quantum bayesianism fix the paradoxes of quantum mechanics? Scientific American 308(6): 47–51. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ballard D. (2002) Our perception of the world has to be an illusion. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9: 54–71. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bar-Yam Y. (2004) A mathematical theory of strong emergence using multiscale variety. Complexity 9(6): 15–24. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bar-Yam Y. (2004) Multiscale variety in complex systems. Complexity 9(4): 37–45. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Basti G. (2014) The formal ontology of the natural realism. Sociedade Brasileira de Historia de Matematica, Campinas. In press. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bateson G. (1972) Steps to an ecology of mind. Ballantine books, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bateson G. (1979) Mind and nature: A necessary unity. Bantam Books, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bateson G. (2002) Mind and nature: A necessary unity. Hampton Press, Princeton NJ. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ben-Jacob E., Shapira Y. & Tauber A. I. (2006) Seeking the foundations of cognition in bacteria. Physica A 359: 495–524. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Blasone M., Jizba P. & Vitiello G. (2011) Quantum field theory and its macroscopic manifestations. Boson condensation, ordered patterns and topological defects. Imperial College Press, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Boghossian P. (2006) Fear of knowledge: Against relativism and constructivism. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bonsignorio F. (2013) Quantifying the evolutionary self-structuring of embodied cognitive networks. artificial Life 19(2): 267–289. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Boto L. (2010) Horizontal gene transfer in evolution: Facts and challenges. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 277: 819–827. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Brier S. (1992) Information and consciousness: A critique of the mechanistic foundation of the concept of information. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 1(2/3): 71–94. http://www.imprint.co.uk/C&HK/vol1/v1–23sbr.htm
Brier S. (1995) Cyber-semiotics: On autopoiesis, code-duality and sign games in bio-semiotics. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 3(1): 3–14. http://www.imprint.co.uk/C&HK/vol3/v3–1sbr.htm
Brier S. (1996) From second-order cybernetics to cybersemiotics: A semiotic re-entry into the second-order cybernetics of Heinz von Foerster. Systems Research 13(3): 229–244. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Brier S. (2008) Cybersemiotics: Why information is not enough! Toronto studies in semiotics and communication. University of Toronto Press, Toronto. Reprinted with minor corrections in 2010 and 2013. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Brier S. (2011) Cybersemiotics and the question of knowledge. In: Dodig-Crnkovic G. & Burgin M. (eds.) Information and computation. World Scientific, Singapore: 1–34. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Brier S. (2011) Ethology and the Sebeokian way from zoosemiotics to cyber(bio)semiotics. In: Deely J., Kull K. & Petrilli S. (eds.) Semiotics continues to astonish: The intellectual heritage of Thomas Albert Sebeok. Mouton de Gruyter, Paris: 41–84. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Brier S. (2013) Cybersemiotics: A new foundation for transdisciplinary theory of consciousness, cognition, meaning and communication. In: Swan L. (ed.) Origins of mind. Springer, Berlin: 97–126 ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Brier S. (2013) Cybersemiotics: A new foundation for transdisciplinary theory of information, cognition, meaningful communication and the interaction between nature and culture. Integral Review 9(2): 220–262. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Brier S. (2013) Transdisciplinary view of Information theory seen from a Cybersemiotics point of view. In: Ibekwe-SanJuan F. & Dousa T. (eds.) Fundamental notions of information, communication and knowledge: Its effect on scientific research and inter-disciplinarity. Springer, New York: 23–49. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Burgin M. (2005) Super-recursive algorithms. Springer, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Burgin M. (2010) Theory of information: Fundamentality, diversity and unification. World Scientific, Singapore. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Butler D. & Gash H. (2003) Creative learning and spiritual moments. In: Lasker G. E. (ed.) Advances in sociocybernetics and human development. Volume XI. International Institute for Advanced Studies, Windsor: 41–46. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Bynum T. & Moor J. (2000) The digital phoenix: How computers are changing philosophy. Revised Edition. Blackwell, Oxford. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Caves C. M., Fuchs C. A. & Schack R. (2002) Quantum probabilities as Bayesian probabilities. Physical Review A 65(2): 1–6. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Chalmers D. J. (1995) Facing up to the hard problem of consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 2(3): 200–219. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Changeux J.-P. (1983) L’homme neuronal. Fayard, Paris. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Chiribella G., D’Ariano G. M. & Perinotti P. (2012) Quantum theory, namely the pure and reversible theory of information. Entropy 14: 1877–1893. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Cilliers P. (2002) Complexity and postmodernism: Understanding complex systems. Routledge, London. Originally published in 1998. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Clark A. (1989) Microcognition: Philosophy, cognitive science, and parallel distributed processing. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Crutchfield J. P., Ditto W. L. & Sinha S. (2010) Introduction to focus issue: Intrinsic and designed computation: information processing in dynamical systems-beyond the digital hegemony. Chaos 20(3): 037101. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Csermely P. (2009) Weak links. The universal key to the stability of networks. Springer, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Davies P. C. W. (2010) Universe from bit. In: Davies P. C. W. & Gregersen N. H. (eds.) Information and the nature of reality. From physics to metaphysics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 65–91. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Deacon T. (2011) Incomplete nature. How mind emerged from matter. W. W. Norton, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Deffner S. & Jarzynski C. (2013) Information processing and the second law of thermodynamics: An inclusive, Hamiltonian approach. Physical Review X 3: 041003. https://journals.aps.org/prx/pdf/10.1103/PhysRevX.3.041003
Dennett D. C. (1978) Brainstorms: Philosophical essays on mind and psychology. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dennett D. C. (1987) The intentional stance. MIT Press: Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dennett D. C.(1993) Consciousness explained. Penguin Books, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dodig-Crnkovic G. & Giovagnoli R. (2013) Computing nature. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dodig-Crnkovic G. & Hofkirchner W. (2011) Floridi’s open problems in philosophy of information. Ten years after. Information 2(2): 327–359. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dodig-Crnkovic G. & Müller V. (2011) A dialogue concerning two world systems: Info-computational vs. mechanistic. In: Dodig Crnkovic G. & Burgin M. (eds.) Information and computation. World Scientific, Singapore: 149–184. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2006) Investigations into information semantics and ethics of computing. Mälardalen University Press, Västerås Sweden: 1–133. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2008) Knowledge generation as natural computation. Journal of Systemics. Cybernetics and Informatics 6(2): 12–16. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2009) Information and computation nets. Investigations into info-computational world. VDM Verlag, Saarbrücken. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2010) Biological information and natural computation. In: Vallverdú J. (ed.) Thinking machines and the philosophy of computer science: Concepts and principles. IGI Global, Hershey PA: 36–52. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2010) Constructivist research and info-computational knowledge generation. In: Magnani L., Carnielli W. & Pizzi C. (eds.) Model-based reasoning in science and technology. Abduction, logic, and computational discovery. Springer, Heidelberg/Berlin: 359–380. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2010) The cybersemiotics and info-computationalist research programmes as platforms for knowledge production in organisms and machines. Entropy 12(4): 878–901. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2011) Dynamics of information as natural computation. Information 2(3): 460–477. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2011) Significance of models of computation from turing model to natural computation. Minds and Machines 21(2): 301–322. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2012) Physical computation as dynamics of form that glues everything together. Information 3(2): 204–218. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Dodig-Crnkovic G. (2014) Information, computation, cognition. Agency-based hierarchies of levels. In: Müller V. C. (ed.) Fundamental issues of artificial intelligence. Springer, Berlin. In press. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Edelman G. M. & Gally J. A. (2001) Degeneracy and complexity in biological systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98: 13763–13768. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Edelman G. M. (1989) The remembered present. Basic Books, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ehresmann A. C. & Vanbremeersch J.-P. (2007) Memory Evolutive Systems: Hierarchy, emergence, cognition. Elsevier, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ehresmann A. C. (2012) MENS, an info-computational model for (neuro-)cognitive systems capable of creativity. Entropy 14: 1703–1716. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Eilenberg S. & MacLane S. (1945) General theory of natural equivalences. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society 58(2): 231–294. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Fields C. (2012) If physics is an information science, what is an observer? Information 3(1): 92–123. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Floridi L. (2003) Informational realism. In: Weckert J. & Al-Saggaf Y. (eds.) Selected papers from conference on Computers and Philosophy (CRPIT ’03) Australian Computer Society, Darlinghurst: 7–12. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Floridi L. (2008) A defense of informational structural realism. Synthese 161(2): 219–253. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Floridi L. (2008) Trends in the philosophy of information. In: Adriaans P. & van Benthem J. (eds.) Handbook of philosophy of information. Elsevier, Amsterdam: 113–132. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Floridi L. (2009) Against digital ontology. Synthese 168(1): 151–178. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Floridi L. (2010) The Cambridge handbook of information and computer ethics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Foerster H. von (1976) Objects: Tokens for (eigen-)behaviors. ASC Cybernetics Forum 8(3–4): 91–96. Reprinted in: Foerster H. von (2003) Understanding understanding: Essays on cybernetics and cognition. Springer, New York: 261–271. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Foerster H. von (1981) Observing systems. Intersystems Publications, Seaside CA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Foerster H. von (2003) Notes on an epistemology for living things. In: Foerster H. von, Understanding understanding: Essays on cybernetics and cognition. Springer, New York: 247–259. Originally published in 1972. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Foerster H. von (2003) Objects: Tokens for (eigen-)behaviors. In: Foerster H. von, Understanding understanding: Essays on cybernetics and cognition. Springer, New York: 261–271. Originally published in 1976. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Foerster H. von (2003) On constructing a reality. In: Foerster H. von, Understanding understanding: Essays on cybernetics and cognition. Springer, New York: 211–227. Originally published in 1973. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Froese T., C. & Rosenblueth D. A. (2013) The dynamically extended mind – A minimal modeling case study. In: IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2013), Cancun, Mexico. IEEE Press, Piscataway NJ: 1419–1426. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Fuchs C. A. (2011) Coming of age with quantum information: Notes on a Paulian idea. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Füllsack M. (2011) Firstness – As seen from the perspective of complexity research. E-Logos. Journal for Philosophy 8: 2–19. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Füllsack M. (2013) Constructivism and computation. Can computer-based modeling add to the case of constructivism? Constructivist Foundation 9(1): 7–16. http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/journal/9/1/007.fuellsack
Gánti T. (2003) The principles of life. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Garzón P. C. (2012) Plant neurobiology: Lessons for the unity of science. In: Pombo O., Torres J. M., Symons J. & Rahman S. (eds.) Special sciences and the unity of science. Springer, Dordrecht: 121–137. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gershenson C. (2011) The sigma profile: A formal tool to study organization and its evolution at multiple scales. Complexity 16(5): 37–44. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gershenson C. (2012) The world as evolving information. In: Minai A., Braha D. & Bar-Yam Y. (eds.) Unifying themes in complex systems Volume VII. Springer, Berlin: 100–115. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gershenson C. (2013) The implications of interactions for science and philosophy. Foundations of Science 18(4): 781–790. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Glasersfeld E. von (1974) Piaget and the radical constructivist epistemology. In: Smock C. D. & Glasersfeld E. von (eds.) Epistemology and education. Follow Through Publications, Athens GA: 1–24. http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/EvG/papers/034.pdf
Glasersfeld E. von (1979) Cybernetics, experience, and the concept of self. In: Ozer M. N. (ed.) A cybernetic approach to the assessment of children: Toward a more humane use of human beings. Westview Press, Boulder CO: 67–113. http://www.vonglasersfeld.com/056
Glasersfeld E. von (1984) An introduction to radical constructivism. In: Watzlawick P. (ed.) The invented reality. Norton, New York: 17–40. http://www.vonglasersfeld.com/070.1
Glasersfeld E. von (1991) A constructivist’s view of learning and teaching. In: Duit R., Goldberg F. & Niedderer H. (eds.) Research in physics learning: Theoretical issues and empirical studies – Proceedings of an international workshop. IPN, Kiel: 29–39. http://www.vonglasersfeld.com/135
Glasersfeld E. von (1995) A constructivist approach to teaching. In: Steffe L. P. & Gale J. (eds.) Constructivism in education. Erlbaum, Hillsdale: 3–15. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Glasersfeld E. von (1995) Radical constructivism: A way of knowing and learning. Falmer Press, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Glasersfeld E. von (2010) Partial memories. Imprint Academic, Exeter. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Glasser W. (1985) Control theory. Harper & Row, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Gontier N. (2010) Evolutionary epistemology as a scientific method: A new look upon the units and levels of evolution. Theory in Biosciences 129: 167–182. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
2004) A theory of causal learning in children: Causal maps and Bayes nets. Psychological Review 111(1): 1–31. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Goyal P. (2012) Information physics. Towards a new conception of physical reality. Information 3: 567–594. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Granovetter M. (1973) The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology 78: 1360–1380. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Harms W. F. (2004) Information and meaning in evolutionary processes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Harms W. F. (2006) Naturalizing epistemology: Prospectus 2006. Biological Theory 1: 23–24. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hebb D. (1949) The organization of behaviour. Wiley, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hewitt C. (2007) What is commitment? Physical, organizational, and social. In: Noriega P., Vazquez-Salceda J., Boella G., Boissier O. & Dign V. (eds.) Coordination, organizations, institutions, and norms in agent systems II. Springer, Berlin: 293–307. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hewitt C. (2010) Actor model for discretionary, adaptive concurrency. Computing Research Repository CoRR, abs/1008.1. http://arxiv.org/abs/1008.1459
Hewitt C. (2012) What is computation? Actor Model versus Turing’s Model. In: Zenil H. (ed.) (2012) A computable universe. Understanding computation and exploring nature as computation. World Scientific, Singapore: 159–186. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hewitt C., Bishop P. & Steiger P. (1973) A universal modular ACTOR formalism for artificial intelligence. In: Nilsson N. J. (ed.) Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. William Kaufmann, Standford: 235–245. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Heyes C. & Huber L. (eds.) (2000) The evolution of cognition. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
C.pa.info/author/Heylighen F." target=_blank>Heylighen F., Cilliers P. & C. (2007) Complexity and philosophy. In: Bogg J. & Geyer R. (eds). Complexity, science and society. Radcliffe Publishing, Oxford: 117–134. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Hoffman D. (2009) The interface theory of perception: Natural selection drives true perception to swift extinction. In: Dickinson S. J., Leonardis A., Schiele B. & Tarr M. J. (ed.) Object categorization: Computer and human vision perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge MA: 148–166. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Jablonka E. & Lamb M. (2005) Evolution in four dimensions: Genetic, epigenetic, behavioral, and symbolic variation in the history of life. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Jain R., Rivera M. C. & Lake J. A. (1999) Horizontal gene transfer among genomes: The complexity hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U. S.A. 96(7): 3801–3806. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
James W. (1983) Principles of psychology. Harvard University Press, Boston. Originally published in 1890. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Johannessen J.-A. & Hauan A. (1994) Communication – A systems theoretical point of view (Third-order cybernetics). Systems Practice 7(1): 63–73. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Johnson D. (2008) Computer Ethics. Forth Edition. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River NJ. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Juarrero A. (1999) Dynamics in action: Intentional behavior as a complex system. MIT Press, Cambridge,MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Juarrero A. (2002) Complex dynamical systems and the problems of identity. Emergence 4(1): 94–104. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Kan D. M. (1958) Adjoint functors. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society 87: 294–329. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Kauffman L. (2009) Reflexivity and eigenform. Constructivist Foundation 4(3): 121–137. http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/journal/4/3/121.kauffman
Kauffman S. A. (1993) The origins of order: Self-organization and selection in evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Kauffman S. A. (2000) Investigations. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Kauffman S. A. (2010) Reinventing the sacred: A new view of science, reason, and religion. Basic Books, New York NY. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Kauffman S. A., Logan R., Este R., Goebel R., Hobill D. & Shmulevich I. (2008) Propagating organization: An enquiry. Biology and Philosophy 23(1): 27–45. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Kolmogorov A. N. (1965) Three approaches to the quantitative definition of information. Problems of Information Transmission 1: 1–17. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Laclau E. & Mouffe C. (1985) Hegemony and socialist strategy: Towards a radical democratic politics. Verso, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Laclau E. (1990) New reflections on the revolution of our time. Verso, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Ladyman J. (2013) Structural realism. In: Zalta E. N. (ed.) The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/structural-realism/
Landauer R. (1991) Information is physical. Physics Today 44: 23–29. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Landauer R. (1996) The physical nature of information. Physics Letter A 217: 188–193. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Luhmann N. (1995) Social systems. Stanford University Press, Stanford. German original: Luhmann N. (1984) Soziale Systeme. Grundriß einer allgemeinen Theorie. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Lungarella M. & Sporns O. (2005) Information self-structuring: Key principle for learning and development. In: Proceedings of the Fourth IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning. IEEE Press, Piscataway NJ: 25–30. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Matsuno K. & Salthe S. (2011) Chemical affinity as material agency for naturalizing contextual meaning. Information 3(1): 21–35. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. & Varela F. J. (1980) Autopoiesis and cognition: The realization of the living. Reidel, Dordrecht. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. & Varela F. J. (1987) The tree of knowledge: The biological roots of human understanding. Shambhala, Boston. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. (1970) Biology of cognition. Biological Computer Laboratory (BCL) Research Report BCL 9.0. University of Illinois, Urbana. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. (1987) Everything is said by an observer. In: Thompson W. (ed.) Gaia, a way of knowing. Lindisfarne Press, Great Barrington MA: 65–82. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Maturana H. R. (1988) The search for objectivity, or the quest for a compelling argument. Irish Journal of Psychology 9: 25–82. http://www.enolagaia.com/M88Reality.html
Maturana H. R. (2002) Autopoiesis, structural coupling and cognition: A history of these and other notions in the biology of cognition. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 9(3–4): 5–34. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Mikkilineni R. (2011) Designing a new class of distributed systems. Springer, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Morowitz H. J. (1992) Beginnings of cellular life: Metabolism recapitulates biogenesis. Yale University Press, New Haven CT. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nescolarde-Selva J. A. & Usó-Doménech J.-L. (2013) Topological structures of complex belief systems. Complexity 19(1): 46–62. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nicolescu B. (2002) Manifesto of transdisciplinarity. State University of New York Press, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Noë A. (2004) Action in perception. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nydahl O. (2008) The way things are: A living approach to Buddhism for today’s world. O Books, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Nørretranders T. (1999) The user illusion: Cutting consciousness down to size. Viking, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Okasha S. (2005) Review of William F. Harms, Information and Meaning in Evolutionary Processes. Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews,12. http://ndpr.nd.edu/news/24927-information-and-meaning-in-evolutionary-processes
Pask G. (1992) Interactions of actors, theory and some applications. Volume 1. Unpublished manuscript. University of Amsterdam. http://www.cybsoc.org/PasksIAT.PDF
Pfeifer R. & Bongard J. (2006) How the body shapes the way we think. A new view of intelligence. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Pfeifer R. & Gomez G. (2009) Morphological computation – connecting brain, body, and environment. In: Sendhoff K. B., Sporns O., Körner E., Ritter H. & Doya K. (eds.) Creating brain-like intelligence: From basic principles to complex intelligent systems. Springer, Berlin: 66–83. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Pfeifer R., Lungarella M. & Iida F. (2007) Self-organization, embodiment, and biologically inspired robotics. Science 318: 1088–1093. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Popper K. R. (1957) The poverty of historicism. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Popper K. R. (1999) All life is problem solving. Routledge, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Purves D., Augustine J. G. & Fitzpatrick D. (eds.) (2001) Neuroscience. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Putnam R. (2000) Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. Simon & Schuster, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Reading A. (2011) Meaningful information. The bridge between biology, brain, and behavior. Springer, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Reading A. (2012) When information conveys meaning. Information 3: 635–643. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Riegler A. & Douven I. (2009) Extending the Hegselmann-Krause model III: From single beliefs to complex belief states. Episteme 6(2): 145–163. http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/riegler/56
Riofrio W. (2007) Informational dynamic systems: Autonomy, information, function. In: Gershenson C., Aerts D. & Edmonds B. (eds.) Worldviews, science, and us: Philosophy and complexity. World Scientific, Singapore: 232–249. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Riofrio W. (2008) Understanding the emergence of cellular organization. Biosemiotics 1: 361–377. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Riofrio W. (2010) On biological computing, information and molecular networks. In: Vallverdú J. (ed.) Thinking machines and the philosophy of computer science: Concepts and principles. IGI Global, Hershey PA: 53–65. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Riofrio W. (2011) A molecular dynamic network: Minimal properties and evolutionary implications. In: Burgin M. & Dodig-Crnkovic G. (eds.) Information and computation: Essays on scientific and philosophical understanding of foundations of information and computation. World Scientific, Singapore: 307–330. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Riofrio W. (2012) Studies on molecular mechanisms of prebiotic systems. Foundations of Science 17(3): 277–289. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Riofrio W. (2013) Ubiquity symposium: Evolutionary computation and the processes of life: Information, biological, and evolutionary computing. Ubiquity 2013(May): Article 2. http://ubiquity.acm.org/article.cfm?id=2480356
Rocha L. M. (1998) Selected self-organization and the semiotics of evolutionary systems. In: Salthe S., Van de Vijver G. & Delpos M. (eds.) Evolutionary systems: Biological and epistemological perspectives on selection and self-organization. Kluwer, Dordrecht: 341–358. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rosen R. (1985) Anticipatory systems. Pergamon Press, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rössler O. (1998) Endophysics: The world as an interface. World Scientific, Singapore. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rovelli C. (1996) Relational quantum mechanics. International Journal of Theoretical Physics 35: 1637–1678. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Rozenberg G., Bäck T. & Kok J. N. (eds.) (2012) Handbook of natural computing. Springer, Berlin. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Sayre K. M. (1976) Cybernetics and the philosophy of mind. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Scheutz M. (ed.) (2002) Computationalism: New directions. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Schmidt S. J. (2011) From objects to processes: A proposal to rewrite radical constructivism. Constructivist Foundations 7(1): 1–9 & 37–47. http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/journal/7/1/001.schmidt
Schroeder M. J. (2011) Concept of information as a bridge between mind and brain. Information 2(3): 478–509. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Segal L. (2001) The dream of reality. Heinz von Foerster’s constructivism. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Skyrms B. (2010) Signals: Evolution, learning and information. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Sloman A. (1996) Beyond Turing equivalence. In: Clark A. & Millican P. J. R. (eds.) Machines and thought: The legacy of Alan Turing. Volume I. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 179–219. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Sloman A. (2002) The irrelevance of Turing machines to AI. In: Scheutz M. (ed.) Computationalism – new directions. MIT Press, Cambridge MA: 87–127. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Sloman A. (2013) Meta-morphogenesis: Evolution and development of information-processing machinery. In: Cooper S. B. & van Leeuwen J. (eds.) Alan Turing: His work and impact. Elsevier, Amsterdam: 849–857. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Smolensky P. & Legendre G. (2006) The harmonic mind: From neural computation to optimality-theoretic grammar. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Smolensky P. (1988) On the proper treatment of connectionism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11: 1–74. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Soare R. (2009) Turing Oracle Machines, online computing, and three displacements in computability theory. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 160(3): 368–399. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Sowers K. A. & Schreier H. J. (1999) Gene transfer systems for the Archaea. Trends in Microbiology 7: 212–219. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Spencer Brown G. (1969) Laws of form. Allen & Unwin, London. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Stepney S. (2012) Programming unconventional computers: Dynamics, development, self-reference. Entropy 14: 1939–1952. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Strogatz S. (1994) Nonlinear dynamics and chaos. With applications to physics, biology, chemistry and engineering. Addison-Wesley, Boston. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Swan L. (ed.) (2012) Origins of mind. Springer, Berlin. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Tegmark M. (2011) How unitary cosmology generalizes thermodynamics and solves the inflactionary entropy problem. http://arxiv.org/pdf/1108.3080.pdf
Terzis G. & Arp R. (2011) Information and living systems: Philosophical and scientific perspectives. MIT Press: Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Turing A. M. (1952) The chemical basis of morphogenesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 237: 37–72. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Umpleby S. (2001) What comes after second order cybernetics? Cybernetics and Human Knowing 8(3): 87–89. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Umpleby S. (2002) The design of intellectual movements. In: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences, Beijing, China, 2–6 August 2002. Republished 2006 as 86 in the Karl Jaspers Forum. http://www.kjf.ca/86-TAUMP.htm
Valiant L. (2013) Probably approximately correct: Nature’s algorithms for learning and prospering in a complex world. Basic Books, New York. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Varela F. J. (1992) Autopoiesis and a biology of intentionality. In: McMullin B. (ed.) Proceedings of the Workshop “Autopoiesis and Perception,” Dublin City University: 4–14. http://elm.eeng.dcu.ie/~alife/bmcm9401/varela.pdf
Varela F. J., Maturana H. R. & Uribe R. (1974) Autopoiesis: The organization of living systems, its characterization and a model. BioSystems 5: 187–196. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Varela F. J., Thompson E. & Rosch E. (1991) The embodied mind: Cognitive science and human experience. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Vedral V. (2010) Decoding reality: The universe as quantum information. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Wheeler J. A. (1990) Information, physics, quantum: The search for links. In: Zurek W. (ed.) Complexity, entropy, and the physics of information. Addison-Wesley, Redwood City: 3–28. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Woese C. R. (2002) On the evolution of cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U. S.A. 99(13): 8742–8747. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Zeh H.-D. (2004) Wave function: “It” or “bit”? In: Barrow J. D., Davies P. C. W. & Harper C. L. Jr. (eds.) Science and ultimate reality. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge MA: 103–120. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Zeh H.-D. (2010) Quantum discreteness is an illusion. Foundations of Physics 40: 1476–1493. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Zeilinger A. (2005) The message of the quantum. Nature 438(7069): 743. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Zeleny M. (1977) Self-organization of living systems: A formal model of autopoiesis. International Journal of General Systems 4(1): 13–28. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Zenil H. (ed.) (2012) A computable universe. Understanding computation and exploring nature as computation. World Scientific, Singapore. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar
Zuse K. (1969) Rechnender Raum. Vieweg, Braunschweig. ▸︎ Google︎ Scholar

Comments: 0

To stay informed about comments to this publication and post comments yourself, please log in first.